Abstract: This study examined Instructional Strategies And Academic Performance In Economics Among Secondary School Students in Ini Local Government Area. Two objectives of the study was proposed, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population was 2,340 Senior Secondary two (SS2) students in the area. A sample size of 120 students was used for the study. The major instrument for data collection was an Achievement test title “Economics Achievement Test (EAT)”. The data collected were analyzed using independent t-test statistics. The results revealed that students taught using demonstration instructional strategies of teaching performed significantly better than their counterparts taught using the lecture instructional strategies of teaching. It was also found that students taught using activity instructional strategies performed significantly better than their counterparts taught using discussion instructional strategies.
It was concluded that instructional strategies significantly influenced students learning of Economics development. It was recommended among others that Teachers should adopt demonstration and activity instructional strategies of teaching in teaching the subject in order to facilitate students’ understanding of instruction and improve their academic performance.
Instructional Strategies And Academic Performance In Economics Among Secondary School Students
1.1 Background to the Study
In the contemporary world today, attention is focused on education as an instrument of launching nations into the world of science and technology and with consequential hope of human advancement, in terms of living conditions and development of the environment. This is because in the life of a nation, education is the live-wire of its industries; it is the foundation of moral regeneration and revival of its people. Education is the bedrock of any nation’s defense. Education is that process that helps to develop the whole man physically, mentally, socially and technologically to enable him to function effectively in any environment in which he may find himself (FRN, 2009). Therefore no nation can afford to pay lip service to the education of its people.
A nation that thinks lightly of education does so at its own peril. In this regard, Ogundele (2009) maintained that no nation rises above the level of its education and no educational system out-grows the quality and status of its teachers. This is so because, the teacher is at the center of the teaching-learning process. Hence, the success or otherwise of the process is attributed to him. Accordingly, teaching is an objective and activity driven exercise. It involves the passage or transfer of knowledge or ideas by the teachers to the learners.
Teaching and learning do not happen by chance, it takes processes methods and strategies. As the teacher sets out to implement the curriculum contents at the classroom level, he/she uses a number of methods and strategies that will facilitate the learners’ understanding of instruction given. It is however, incontestable that realization of the objectives of any teaching-learning encounter which will be an illusion if the teacher fails to use appropriate strategies. As the teacher sets out to implement the curriculum contents at the classroom level, he uses a number of the instructional strategies that will facilitate the learners’ understanding of instruction given. It is however, incontestable that realization of the objectives of any teaching-learning encounter will be an illusion if the teacher fails to use appropriate instructional strategies in explaining the subject matter to the students. Therefore, the role of teacher’s instructional strategies in the success of the teaching – learning process cannot be overemphasized.
Instructional strategies are used in the presentation of lesson to help the students learn by ensuring the smooth delivery of the instruction. The availability of qualified and experienced teachers only does not guarantee the success of the teaching-learning process, but also the strategies adopted by teachers and their application (Dyer, 2005). In organizing lesson, the teacher should be more concern about what to teach, how to teach and when to teach his/ her learners. He/she should adopt good strategy of instructions that will guarantee better understanding of what he intends to teach his learners. Students’ negative attitude towards some school subjects might not be unconnected with the teachers’ strategies of instruction vis-à-vis his method. Not fully appreciated by most teachers is the importance of instructional strategies in the teaching-learning process. Although there are teachers with good subject matter mastery, the learners ability to comprehend the knowledge imparted by teacher depends to a greater extended on the strategies applied by the teacher.
According to Foster (2008), several methods of instruction have been employed by teachers to facilitate students’ understanding of instruction but not much success have need recorded due to their wrong application by the teachers. Towari (2006) observed that teaching strategies that encourage students’ centered activities are conspicuously lacking among teachers. Instructional strategies are techniques teachers use to help students become independent, strategic learners. These strategies become learning strategies when students independently select the appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals. Effective instructional and learning strategies can be used across grade levels and subject areas, and can accommodate a range of student differences O’Connor(2007).
Hence, for effective teaching to take place, the teacher should stimulate, encourage and maintain active participation of the learners through the selection of appropriate instructional strategies. This will ensure a balance between what is taught and how it is taught. Thus, there is no gain saying in the fact that successful instruction does not depend only on the teachers’ mastery of the subject matter but also the instructional strategies employed.
Instructional Strategies And Academic Performance In Economics Among Secondary School Students
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is an indisputable fact that one of the challenges facing the teaching-learning process in schools over the years is the dwindling academic performance of students both in internal and external examinations. The poor academic performance of students in school has become an intractable problem in our educational system and it is fast becoming a recurring decimal especially in public examinations.
This ugly development has been a subject of concern to stake-holders in education. Worried by the continuous decline in student’s academic performance in school, parents have put the blame on the teachers for their low level of commitment on the discharge of their professional duties while teachers in turn point accusing fingers at the government for the falling standard of education in the country. True as this accusation may be one cannot rule out the fact teachers occupy an important position in the teaching-learning process. Hence, the success or failure of students in schools, centers on them.
However, it has been observed among scholars that most teachers in schools having been using uninspiring and inappropriate strategies of instruction to impact knowledge to their students. They rely on strategies that are easy but mostly inappropriate to the instructional process. There is no gain saying that the realization of the dream of improving academic performance of students at all levels of education will remain an herculean task if teachers fail to adopt instructional strategies most suitable to a particular subject matter which will equally facilitate students understanding of what is taught. It is against this background therefore, that this study “Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance in Economics among secondary school Students’ in Ini Local Government Area” becomes imperative.
1.3 Purpose of the study.
The main objective of this study was be to examine Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance in Economics among Secondary School Students’ in Ini Local Government Area. The specific objectives include:
- To examine the academic performance of students taught using demonstration instructional strategies and those taught using lecture Instructional strategies in Economics in Secondary Schools in Ini Local Government Area.
- To examine the academic performance of students taught using the activity instructional strategy and those taught using the discussion Instructional strategy in Economics in Secondary Schools in Ini Local Government Area.
1.4 Significance of the study
It is anticipated that the findings of this study would be of immense benefits to all and sundry in the educational sector. Particularly, teachers, school administrators, educational planners and policy makers, students, parents and the government at large in the following ways:
- It would make known the instructional strategies adopted by Economics teachers in the study area.
- It would bring into focus the instructional strategies that best guarantee improvement in students’ understanding of instructional strategies and their academic performance.
- It would add to the body of existing literature on instructional strategies in relation to students’ academic performance.
- Finally, the findings of this study would serve as a reference material for further research on instructional strategies in relation to students’ academic performance but other subject areas.
1.5 Research hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are formulated to guide the study in line with the specific objectives.
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught using demonstration instructional strategies and those taught using lecture Instructional strategies in Economics in Secondary Schools in Ini Local Government Area.
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught using activity instructional strategy and those taught using the discussion Instructional strategy in Economics in Secondary Schools in Ini Local Government Area.
1.6 Delimitation of the study
The study was delimited to Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance in Economics among Secondary School Students’ in Ini Local Government Area. Analysis was on Senior Secondary School two (SS2) students in the study area.
1.7 Limitation of the study
The major factors that limit the scope of this study to Ini Local Government Area were insufficient fund, time frame for the completion of the study and the researcher’s academic work-load among others.
1.8 Definition of the terms
The following terms used in this study were operationalized be the researcher as explained below:
Instructional strategies: Instructional strategies are techniques teachers use to help students become independent, strategic learners.
Academic performance: The performance of students in tests and examinations given on lessons taught to them.
Demonstration method: A method of teaching which involves the act of showing or explaining how something works or is done.
Lecture method: A method of teaching where the teacher does all or most of the talking with the students hardly participating in class discussion.
Discussion method: A method of teaching which involves interaction between the teacher and the students.