Antibiogram of Salmonella Species Isolated from Vegetable


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This research study was carried out in Afaha Nsit of Nsit lbom Local Government Area, Akwa lbom State to identity the various species of Salmonella on Vegetables as well as determine their antibiogram. The Vegetables used include: Okra Pumpkin and Cucumber Microbiological and biochemical analyses were carried out to isolate identity and characterize the species of Salmonella in Vegetables. The disk diffusion method as used for the antibiogram test.

The result of analysis revealed that Ciprofloxacin and Ampicillin are susceptible with 100%, chlorophenicol, kenamycin and Nale dixic has 93.0% respectively, streptomycin and Tetracycline has 63.3% respectively, Gentamycin, Erythromycin, Lincomyycin and Amoxicillin has a lower susceptibility. The study therefore recommends that antibiogram testing should always be considered in the hospital before treatmenl of Salmonella species.


Antibiogram of Salmonella Species Isolated from Vegetable




1.1       Background of the Study

Salmonella is a gram negative rods genus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Within 2 species, Salmonella bongori and Samonellaenterica, over 2500 different serotypes or serovars have been identified to date (Su LH, Chiu CH 2007) Salmonella is a ubiquitous and hardy bacteria that can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water. While all serotypes can cause disease in humans, a few are host- specific and can reside in only one or a few animal species: for example, Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin in cattle and Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in pigs. When these particular serotypes cause disease in humans, it is often invasive and can be life-threatening.

Most serotypes, however, are present in a wide range of hosts. Typically such serotypes cause gastroenteritis, which is often uncomplicated and does not need treatment, but disease can be severe in the young, the elderly, and patients with weakened immunity. This group features Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the “two most important serotypes of Salmonella transmitted from animals to humans in most parts of the world (Jantsch 2011)

Salmonellosis is a disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella. It is usually characterized by acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and sometimes vomiting. The onset of disease symptoms occurs 6-72 hours (usually 12-36 hours) after ingestion of Salmonella, and ilness lasts 2-7 days. Symptoms of salmonellosis are relatively mild and patients will make a recovery without specific treatment in most cases.

However, in some cases, particularly in children and elderly patients, the associated dehydration can become severe and life-threatening. Although large Salmonella outbreaks usually attract media attention, 60-80% of all salmonellosis cases are not recognized as part of a known outbreak and are classified as sporadic cases, or are not diagnosed as such at all (Fàbrega, 2013).


1.2       Statement of the Problem

The burden of foodborne diseases is substantial: every year almost l in 10 people fall ill and 33 million of healthy life years are lost. Foodborne diseases can be severe especially for young children. Diarrhoeal diseases are the most common illnesses resulting from unsafe food, 550 million people falling ill each year, including 220 million children under the age of 5 years. Salmonella is 1 of the 4 key global causes of diarrhoea diseases. Base on this, the study therefore discuss the antibiogram of salmonella specie isolated from vegetable wash water.

Antibiogram of Salmonella Species Isolated from Vegetable

1.3       Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study was to determine the antibiogram of salmonella species isolated from vegetable wash water, while the specific objective includes the following:

  1. To determine the Sources and transmission of salmonella species
  2. To determine the Detection, culture, and growth conditions of salmonella species
  3. To determine the Antibiotic sensitivity of salmonella species
  4. To determine the pathogenesis of salmonella species


1.4       Research Questions

  1. What are the Sources and transmission of salmonella species?
  2. What are the methods of Detection, culture, and growth conditions of salmonella species?
  3. What is the pathogenesis of salmonella species?


1.5       Significant of the Study

This study has a great significant to every individual, it review the antibiotitic that can inhibit the growth of salmonella species. It also access the microorganisms associated with vegetables wash water.

  Antibiogram of Salmonella Species Isolated from Vegetable

1.6       Scope of the Study

This tends to cover every aspect of salmonella species, it discuss on the isolation of salmonella species, and as well review the microorganisms associated with vegetables.

1.7       Limitation of the Study

The use of low – fetch equipment was a limit to the scope of this experiment. Also the size of the sample population was also a limit to this research project due to the fact that not all the brand of fruit juice required was seen in the area of study and finally money was also an impediment to this research project; lack of huge amount for proper research.

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