There are four managerial problems in educational planning that may enter into the process of planning. These are evaluation or assessment of present conditions, time factor, collection and analysis of data, and the existence of a hierarchy of plans within the school as an organization.
Evaluation of present conditions or situational analysis: In assessing/evaluating existing conditions, inadequacies that would lead to the desired change must be recognized. The planner must be aware of dissatisfaction with present conditions because from such dissatisfaction will arise the controlled and planned changed that is intended to prevent or minimize problems or alleviate problems that have arisen.
The factor: The time span which planning covers ranged from relatively short-term to long-term duration. The planner faces a time span ranging from the immediate present to the indeterminate future. Short-term planning is concerned with the near future, like plan for one school year or the next two or three years. Long-term planning may cover the next five to ten years.
Collection and analysis of data: Planning depends for its effectiveness on the quality and quantity of data available to the planner. It is necessary to identify reliable sources of information, evaluate the worth of these sources and judge the value of the materials. Information in planning may be classified as internal and external. Internal data consist of records of costs, production sales, labor requirements, knowledge of quotas, objectives, and other strategic matters describing the existing conditions. External sources include a large number of regular newspapers, periodicals, and other publication from industry, community, and government.
Hierarchy of plans: This pertains to plans that are arranged according to degree of importance. The higher the level of the organization, the broader and longer the scope and coverage of the plan is. Judging the degree of importance of the various plans in the school system helps the planner to see how his particular planning must fit into the other existing or contemplated plans. For example, in the preparation of the overall budget for the school year, each unit of department prepares its particular budget by requesting its subdivisions to prepare their budget.