Audio-Visual Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology


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This research was on Audio-visual materials Utilization and academic performance of students in Biology in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Two hundred (200) senior secondary two Biology students formed the simple size for the study. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selected of the students from five secondary schools in the area. A quasi-experimental research design was used.

Data collected were analyzed using the independent t-test. The result showed that audio-visual model instructional materials utilization greatly improves the academic performance of Biology in secondary school. This means that the students taught Biology with the used of the audio-visual materials perform academically better than those taught without. Base on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that teachers should use audio-visual materials always for the teaching of Biology.


Audio-Visual Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology





The global wave in the use of educational technology and its revolutionary effects is a major attraction to the choice of this topic for study. This project examined systematically the effects of the use of students in developing nation like Nigeria taking the case of a private primary and secondary school library. The choices of schools have no functional libraries. There is a growing consciousness among some private school libraries.

This project identified a whole wide range of audio-visual materials and their equipment for operation abounds in the library.

However, many a time materials and equipment are not used in the library. Similarly, the students are unable to use the materials and equipment themselves. There is no convenient time for them to use the audio-visual materials and equipment.

Despite all these constraints audio-visual technology is adequately used in the school in technology and learning. The results gathered indicated that student’s academic performances are significantly improved after being taught using audio-visual technology.

Nowadays, knowledge is recorded in many physical forms. Before printing was invented, the papyrus vellum, codex etc were used in recording human knowledge. With the invention of printing come books and other printing form. Recently, another form of media has come into prominence and that is the audio-visual media. Audio-visual may include graphic materials such as pictures, map chart, sides etc and family multimedia package such as motion pictures, video recording etc. There are also information-bearing item like microforms, computer readable data files and three – dimensional objects e.g botanical specimens.

Audio-visuals have a variety of definitions. It is derived from a Latin word meaning “I hear” in library and information science, it is replay of sound which use hear. This covers microforms, disc recorder amplifiers, loud-speakers and their enclosures and any other techniques which are used to record or replay sound waves (Sincher, 2017) cited in (Robsoni, 2015).

Audio-visuals mean something related to sound and visual or light. They include printed materials and their equipment. Audio-visual material can be categorized into audio materials and visual materials. Audio include Radio, Lecture/talk, Audio tape/cats cassette, Compact Disc, Telephone, etc. Visual material can be identified by grouping them into two ways 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional projectiles and non projectiles. Visual materials can also be classified under graphics/photographic.

Audio-visuals are a combination of audio media packages, VCR, and even computer programmes. Some cannot be treated without the equipment for using them as projectors, TV, receiver, Microreader Record player, photocopying machine, VTR Laminating 35mm camera with accessories etc. They can also exist in some other forms as slides of computer screens, down leading of computer search, interactive video disc which requires the image storage medium, a TV monitor or receiving inputs.

They are usually not in book and so are not easily available. They are usually expensive because some of them require projectors; Moreso, they are usually hard to process because they lack some of the normal bibliographic detail. They however can be catalogued using the territorial areas. Finally, they are of easily accessible to user. They are used mainly as reference materials and user are encouraged to borrow them.


1.2  Statement of problem

All over the world, education is seen as machinery through which acquisition of knowledge and skills is achieved such that every nation is gearing towards the provision of quality education for her citizens. This quality education is evidenced on the performance of students in external examinations e.g. West African School certificate examination (WASCE).

Unfortunately, it is observed that the academic performance of most learners full below expectation, as noted by Momoh (2011). Researchers like (Udom 2011) attributed this fallen standard to many factors among which are home factor, environmental factors, peer group influence, teaching methodology, teachers’ variable and many others.

However, other researchers (Popool, 2015 and Wales, 2015) have reported positive effects of the use of models on performances of students in other aspects of science like mathematics and physics. The question now is, could the use of models also improve performance of student’s in Biology?


1.3  Purpose of the Study

The study sought investigates the influence of Audio-visual material and utilization on students’ academic performance of Biology in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. To achieve the above general purpose, the study specifically.

  1. Examined the effect of the use of audio-visual material on the academic performance of students in Biology.
  2. Assessed whether there could be any significant difference in performance between male and female student s when taught Biology using Audio-visual materials (models, tape recorder and lecture).


 1.4  Significance of the Study

No teaching can be done effectively without the use of Audio-visual materials in the teaching of that particular subject in schools. Audio-visual materials are of great importance to teachers and learners due to the fact that, they make abstract lesson real, practical and so enhance the understanding of the subject.

  • This study significantly will help curriculum designers I developing a curriculum for Nigerian Science teachers of tomorrow.
  • It will enhance innovational thinking creativity and resourcefulness among Biology teachers as they will have to think of and select relevant material utilization.

 Audio-Visual Materials Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology

1.5  Research Hypothesis

The following research hypothesis was formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant difference in academic performance of students taught Biology using Audio-visual materials (models, tape recorder and lecture) and those taught without audio-visual materials.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic performance between male and female students taught Biology using audio-visual materials (models, tape recorder and lecture).

1.6  Delimitation of the Study

Due to certain constraints like time, the study was delimited to the following only secondary schools in Oruk Anam, Local Government Area. It shall focus on audio-visual material utilization and academic performance of students in Biology in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

1.7  Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined as used in the study.

Audio-visual materials: which are used in the instructional or learning process facilitate teaching.

Academic performance: This refers to the child’s examination scores or result in school.

Model:   This is a recognizable 3 – dimensional likeness of representation of the real thing.

Students: They are those who are taught by the teacher and they constitute a greater number of users.

Biology: Is the study of life (plants and animals).

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