Classroom management techniques and academic performance of students


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 1.1  Background to the Study

Classroom management is a significant part of effective teaching and learning process. Due to an effective Classroom management, students flourish in a positive class climate and a compassionate environment. From a student perspectives, effective Classroom management provides them the opportunities to social size themselves while leaning. From a teacher’s perspective, effective Classroom management involves precautionary discipline and fruitful teaching.

Okoli (2018) concluded that physical environment of the Classroom and seating arrangement is interrelated and managed alongside. For the Classroom to serve its purpose, the teacher must be able to establish order. This requires him/her to have the knowledge, attitude and skills necessary. He/she must be able to establish rapport with the students and their parents, invoice students in the processes of establishing ground rules for behavior and being accountable for their actions, manage transitions during instructions and motivate students to maximize time- on – task, supervise students in their learning activities and lastly deal with students’ misbehaviuour effectively.

However, the phenomenon of over- crowded classroom as well as poor quality and inadequate furniture in the Classroom due to unlimited expansion has taken its toll on the educational system. Thus only dew people will deny that the quality of teaching and learning is on the decline at all levels of the educational system. Hassan (1995)

In the same vein, Ajayi (2010) Opines that the poor result of the senior secondary school examination (SSCE) in almost all subjects in recent years is one potent indicator. The increase in examination malpractices cannot be divorced from poor seating arrangement in classroom.

Furthermore, Classroom management is the process of organizing and conducting the business of the Classroom, many perceive it as the preservation of order through teacher control. Classroom management is much more than that; it also involves the establishment and maintenance of the Classroom environment so that educational goals can be accomplished (Savage and Savage 2010).

Effective Classroom managers create orderly, safe environments where students feel valued and comfortable. Thus, setting the stage for teaching and learning, to achieve Classroom space to support a variety of independence, small and large group activities (Crane, 2011). Secondary school teachers also designate a large area of floor space where students can gather for read aloud, demonstrations and Class meeting. Hence, in all Classrooms, there should be no “blind” area in the room where students can be out of view. To structure “traffic flow” and minimize disruption, teachers separate high- traffic area such as group work areas, learning centers, student’s desk and teacher’s desk.

Supporting this view, Adeqinka (2012) stressed that effective Classroom managers provide a structured, caring environment that meets student’s personal and academic needs. Such teachers are perceived as authority figures in the Classroom. They share high behavioural expectation, designing implement development appropriate lessons, and establish and enforce behavioural guidelines, because effective teachers respect students as individual with rights values and feelings, they carefully choose their words and actions to protect students dignity. They actively engage students in meaningful, challenging educational experiences and provide plentiful positive feedback. In short, they set their students and themselves up for success.

However, in effective teachers are poor planners. They do not start class on time, become side traced easily, use limited, low interest teaching strategies, and create a disorganized expectation, (Adeyemo, 2012). Furthermore, they avoid their responsibility in helping students to make good behavioural choices by trying to be the student’s friend instead of their teacher when that approach generates misbehaviours, ineffective teachers use ridicules, sarcasm, and put- down to put students in their place. Students disrespect for these teachers is evidenced through increasingly frequent Classroom disruptions and exceeding poor behavioural choices.


Classroom management techniques and academic performance of students

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Classroom management is that heart of any educational system. No curriculum planning is complete without implementation and evolution, both of which are mainly carried out in the Classroom. Most of the class activities take place while students are seated. The seating arrangement is therefore too important to suffer the kind of neglect being experienced by many secondary school student in the country today.

As rightly observed by Cohen and Manron (1983). A careful attention of seating arrangement contributes effectively to Classroom management and control of overall success of the Classroom.

Observation reveals that in recent times, there has been astronomies rise due to increase in environment of students in public secondary schools. Some schools have as many as eighty (80), hundred (100) of above per class as against the teacher students ratio of 1: 25 recommended by the National policy on education (FGN 2004) which can affect students’ academic performance if Classroom is not properly managed by the class  management.

This situation has multiple negative effects on teaching and learning as well as students academic outcome. This is evidenced in the failure rates recorded by students in external exams like W. A. E. C in core subjects like Economics between 2004 to date (Osin 2019). Apart from this, students no longer have confidence in writing exams on their own without examination Dishonesty (Mgbikem 2014). However, this research tends to take a look into how Classroom management techniques has affected the academic performance of students in economics from secondary schools.

Classroom management techniques and academic performance of students

1.3  Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine Classroom management techniques and academic performance in Economics among secondary school students. The researcher also opined that specifically the study also sought to:

  1. Examine teachers’ Classroom management techniques and academic performance in economics among secondary schools.
  2. Fine out methods of Classroom management.
  3. Examine teachers’ Discipline and students’ academics performance in economic among secondary schools.


1.4 Significance of the Study

This study exposes the teacher to the concept, principle and theories they can apply in Classroom to effect change in learners teachers need every bit of knowledge on how to control the Classroom and to handle learners in the Classroom setting. As such, the findings of this research will be significant in the following aspects:

  1. It will stimulate a rethinking in teachers and other educators about teacher education and improvement of teaching and learning process in school.
  2. It will provide more insight to both teachers and educators on the required performance on teachers.


1.5  Research Questions

The following research questions are posed to give the study a direction. The research questions are specifically as follows:

  • In what way does a Classroom management technique contribute effectively to students’ academic performance in economics?
  • To what existence does method of Classroom management techniques influences academic performance of students among secondary schools?
  • Do teachers’ discipline influence students’ academic performance?

Classroom management techniques and academic performance of students

1.6  Delimitation of the Study

This study is limited to only five (5) secondary schools in okobo Local Government Area and a sample size of two hundred (200) respondents drawn from the five randomly selected schools.

1.7  Limitation: The study is constrained by limited time frame for it execution and completion, finance, logistic problem and for the purpose of arriving at accurate analytical data.

These circumstances made the study highly limited, as it finding may differ from what may be obtained in other states of Nigeria, so the generalization made here may not be generally accepted in some quarters. This has limited the researcher in it generalizations.


1.8  Definition of Terms

To show a clear perception of the study, the following terms are defined:

Class Size: The total number of students in a class at the given tine under the supervision of a single teacher.

Classroom Management: This has to do with the smooth and effective handing of the class through the process of controlling, supervising planning, mobilizing of various resources.

Academic Performance: This is the varying ability in which students perform at schools.

Class Room: The refers to a room of place where lessons are conducted.

Teaching: This refers to the art of imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes especially by a trained teacher.

Teacher: This refers to a person who has undergone training and is certified to impact knowledge.

Student: This refers to a child undergoing studies in secondary schools.

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