Classroom Variables and Academic Performance of Students (2023)


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1.1  Background to the study

Classroom variables refer to those characteristics that describe and influence the behaviour of pupils in the classroom. Classroom variables consist of so many sub-variables that affect pupils’ performance in schools. Some of such variables are physical appearance, layout of the classrooms, teachers teaching behaviour and instructional materials utilization. The classroom still remains the main learning environment in the schools although learning can take place in other venues. On this premise, it is imperative that educators strive to make the classroom the best venue for pupils to attain their full potential in academic performance (Fullon, 2015).

It is what teachers’ think, what teachers do and who teachers are at the level of the classroom that ultimately shapes the kind of learning that young people get (Ukpong, 2017).  A large amount of a child’s time is spent sitting in a school’s classroom. This place is where they will learn the various skills deemed necessary and proper for them to achieve success in the global society. The classroom is where they will gain an understanding of their place in the world as well as discovering their potentials. It is where the student develops what they want their future to look like, as well as knowledge of the skills needed to reach that goal.

With the classroom being such an important place in the growth of a child it is important to understand the ways in which to affect this environment in order to receive maximum effectiveness instruction. If schools really do play a large role in teaching the next generation how to be successful members of society then every precaution should be taken to make sure that the learning environment is one  thing that help pupils thrive.

If not approached correctly, a classroom can be set up in a way that stifles creativity or does not promote a positive learning environment. There are many things that can affect this environment. There are physical elements such as wall art, arrangement of desks, or resources.

Also, there are intangible elements such as the energy of the classroom, the rules, or the sounds within the room. Each of these can impact  students focus and achievement in the class. Also teacher’s attitude in the classroom is one of variables we cannot do without. The way in which a teacher organizes their class, or how they control it, will yield positive or negative consequences for their students. If a teacher is unmotivated, there will be negative impact on the students within the classroom but if a teacher is motivated there will be positive impact on their students as well. It is important for a teacher to understand this cause and effects in order to understand how to organize his classroom to create a better learning environment.


Classroom Variables and Academic Performance of Students (2023)

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is observed that classroom variables are major problems that affect academic performance of students in the School.  These classroom variables include: class size, instructional materials, classroom structures, teacher’s attitude in the class, classroom organization, teachers leadership styles in the classroom etc.

It observed that most public secondary schools are over populated, as such teachers lack classroom control which in turn affects academic performance of students. These problems arise because of large class size ratio to a teacher, poor utilization of instructional materials, Poor classroom structure, poor classroom organization etc. it is against this background that the study sought to investigate the effect of Class variables and academic performance in Government among senior secondary students in Ika Local Government Area.


1.3 Purpose of the study

The study sought to find out the influence of classroom variables and Academic Performance of students in Government in Ika Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study will:

  1. Find out the Influence of class size on Academic Performance of Students in Government.
  2. Find out the Influence of classroom structure on Academic Performance of Students in Government.


1.4 Significance of the Study

The study will help the parent to identify the need of sending their wards to well standardize schools where teachers and other school facilities are available.

(i)   It will help teacher to learn the different managerial strategies for effective management of classroom in order to increase academic performance of the learners.

(ii)  It will help the government to supply adequate facilities to various schools as well as deploying more qualified teachers.

(iii)  The study will serve as a reference point or material for other researchers who may like to carry out research on the similar topic.

The study will help the students to improve their learning habit.


1.5 Research questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. To what extent does class size influence Academic Performance of Students in Government?
  2. To what extent does classroom structure influence academic performance of students in Government?


1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant influence between students taught Government in small class and those taught Government in a large class on Academic Performance of Students in Government.
  2. There is no significant influence between students taught Government in conducive classroom structure and those taught Government in non-conducive classroom structure on academic performance of students in Government.

Classroom Variables and Academic Performance of Students (2023)

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Some of the challenges encountered while conducting the research include lack of sufficient funds, short duration for the study and difficulties in having access to relevant materials.


1.8 Delimitation of the Study

For the purpose of effective research work, this study will be delimited to SS II students in selected public secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area.

1.9  Operation Definitions of Terms:

The following are defined as they are applied in the study.

Academic performance:   This is used in the study to refer to student’s attitude to competition for excellence in their attitude towards participating in class activities and homework.

Classroom variables: refers to those characteristics that describe and influence the behaviour of students in the classroom.

Student: this refers to the learners of Government in school.

 Class Size: It is the ratio students to a teacher in a classroom.

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