Classroom Variables And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools

Classroom Variables And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools

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This study entitled “Classroom Variables and Learning of Biology in Secondary Schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area” was carried out to investigate the influence of class size and classroom discipline on the learning of Biology in secondary schools. Two research questions were raised to direct the study. A survey research design was adopted. The population of the study consisted of all senior secondary two (SS2) Biology students in public secondary schools in Essien Udim. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 240 students for the study. The study utilized a structured questionnaire titled “Classroom Variable and Biology Learning Questionnaire” (CVBLQ).

Data collected from the respondents were analyzed using simple percentage statistics. Findings of the study revealed a significant influence of classroom variables (class size and classroom discipline) on the learning of Biology in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area. In line with the objectives and findings of the study, it was recommended among others that classroom should be made conducive for learners so as to increase their learning effectiveness in the class. The study concluded that class size and classroom discipline influence the learning effectiveness of Biology students.

Classroom Variables And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools
Classroom Variables And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools

Classroom Variables And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools


Title Page                                           –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification                                        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication                                          –        –        –        –        –        iii

Acknowledgement                              –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract                                             –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents                               –        –        –        –        –        vi



1.1     Background to the Study          –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problems        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.3     Objective of the Study              –        –        –        –        –        6

1.4     Research Questions                  –        –        –        –        –        6

1.5     Significance of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        7

1.6     Delimitation of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        8

1.7     Limitations of the Study            –        –        –        –        –        8

1.8     Operational Definition of Terms –        –        –        –        –        8


2.1     Concept of Classroom Variables           –        –        –        –        –        10

2.2     Class Size and the Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools     11

2.3     Classroom Discipline and the Teaching of Biology in

Secondary Schools                    –        –        –        –        –        14

2.3     Summary of Literature Review  –        –        –        –        –        18



3.1     Area of the Study                      –        –        –        –        –        20

3.2     Research Design                       –        –        –        –        –        21

3.3     Population of the Study             –        –        –        –        –        21

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique          –        –        –        –        21

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        22

3.6     Validation of the Instrument     –        –        –        –        –        22

3.7     Method of Data Collection         –        –        –        –        –        22

3.8     Method of Data Analysis           –        –        –        –        –        23




 4.1     Presentation of Result               –        –        –        –        –        24

4.2     Discussion of Findings              –        –        –        –        –        29



5.1     Summary                                  –        –        –        –        –        31

5.2     Recommendation                      –        –        –        –        –        32

5.3     Conclusion                                –        –        –        –        –        33

          References                               –        –        –        –        –        34

          Appendices                               –        –        –        –        –        38


Classroom Variables And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools




1.1   Background to the Study

The overall development of any nation is undoubtedly tied to its educational system since education is the light that shows mankind the direction for growth and process. Education does not only impart knowledge and skills, it also inculcates values and is responsible for building human capacity which drives and sets the technological innovation and growth (Abayo, 2010).

Education, according to Holmes (2014) is any process by which an individual gains knowledge and develops attitudes or skills. According to him, education brings formative effect on the minds, character and the physical ability of an individual. He further stated that education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, values, skills from one generation to another.

The function of education is both social and individualistic. Its social function is to help individual become effective member of society by passing unto him the collective experience of the past and the present. Its individual function is to enable him lead a more satisfying and productive life by preparing him to handle new experiences successfully (Sadler, 2011).

These functions can only achieved when the environment of the classroom is conducive and encouraging. Students accumulate knowledge with the help of the teachers in a motivating environment of the classroom. The learning experience accumulated in a sound classroom environment serves as the bridge to overcome life’s circumstances and eventually become effective member of the society. There is need to introduce quality into the system by creating a sound and conducive environment for the teaching and learning process.

According to Ajayi (2011), classroom variables are the physical surrounding which includes the students, chairs, tables, and chalkboard. These variables affect the teaching-learning process either positively or negatively. Hence, class size remains an important area that should be well-managed to enhance teaching and learning process. George (2011) added that an affordable classroom will gear up expected outcome of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, as well as, the academic performance of the students.

Thus, for learning to take place, the classroom must be inviting, conducive and accommodating for adequate and effective learning to take place.

Grant (2014) believed that the classroom should be well-furnished and equipped with learning facilities. These facilities include seats, chalkboards, charts, maps, lighting, and computers with internet connection.

Marden (2012) reported that poor classroom facilities, and ineffective ventilating system lead to poor health among learners and teachers which leads to poor performance and high absentee rate. These factors can adversely affect students’ behaviour and may lead to high level of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among students. It is against this background, that this research work is undertaken to determine the effect of classroom variables on the learning of Biology in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.


Classroom Variables And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The most persistent problem facing our educational system from time immemorial is the issue of poor academic performance of students. The abysmal performance of students in public examinations has become worrisome as it has reached a frightening proportion. Parents are putting the blame on the teachers, teaches in turn point accusing fingers on the government. Researchers on their part attribute the downward trend in students’ academic performance to poor school infrastructures, lack of appropriate teaching and learning facilities and poor reading culture among students. 

The ineffective learning of Biology in Essien Udim is as a result of lack of valuable classroom facilities such as chairs, tables, desks, chalkboard and other classroom teaching facilities.

Soyinka (2012) observed that the decline in educational system is as a result of poor educational funding by the government. He stated that secondary schools classrooms in Nigeria needed restricting and financing.

The interest  of this researcher has been activated by the fact that all the effort by the Akwa Ibom State government to improve secondary school classrooms has not yielded the desired result. This is as a result of classroom variables such as class size and classroom teaching facilities.

It is against this background that this study “Classroom variables and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area “ was carried out.


1.3   Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of classroom variables on the learning of Biology in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

The specific objectives of the study include to:

  1. Investigate the influence of class size on the learning of Biology in Essien Udim Local Government Area.
  2. Investigate the influence of classroom discipline on the learning of Biology in Essien Udim Local Government Area.


Classroom Variables And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools

1.4   Research Questions

The following research questions were raised in line with the specific objectives of the study:

  1. Does class size influence students’ learning of Biology in Essien Udim Local Government Area?
  2. Does classroom discipline influence students’ learning of biology in Essien Udim Local Government Area?


1.5   Significance of the Study

It is anticipated that the findings of this study will be of immense benefits to teachers, students, educational planners and policy makers, researchers, school administrators and the academic world in general in the following ways:

  1. It will reveal if classroom variables influence students’ learning in biology in Essien Udim.
  2. It will help educators to understand better those classroom variables that may contribute to the effective learning of Biology.
  3. It will enlighten teachers on certain variables which can mar the realization of set goals and objectives.
  4. It will contribute to the body of existing data and literature on classroom variables in relation to students’ learning in schools.
  5. Finally, it will serve as a reference materials for further research into classroom variables and students’ learning.


1.6   Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited to classroom variables and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area. Analysis was on senior secondary two (SS2) students in the area.


1.7   Limitation of the Study

The major factors which limited the scope of this study were insufficient finance, shortness of time for the completion of the research, researcher’s academic work load among other extraneous factors.


1.8   Definition of Terms

 The following terms used in the study were conceptualized by the researcher as explained below:

Classroom Variables: These are classroom factors that exert either positive or negative influence on learning.

Class size: This refers to the total number of students in the class. It may be either large or small class size.

Academic Achievement: Academic ability of students in school subjects as determined by results of examinations or tests.

classroom Discipline: This refers to the act of teaching the students to obey rules and regulations in the classroom and control their behaviour in order to attain educational goals.

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