FAMILY VARIABLES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF PUPILS IN BASIC SCIENCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ORUK ANAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This study examine Family Variables and Academic Achievement of pupils in Basic science in Primary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Asrea. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study in line with the specific objectives. The survey research design was adopted for the study. The target population was 786 primary five (5) pupils in the area. A sample size of 120 primary five (5) pupils was selected for the study using the simple random sampling technique. The instruments for data collection were “Family Variables questionnaire (FVQ)” and “Basic Science Achievement test (BSAT)”. The data collected were analyzed using independent t-test.
The result showed that pupils from high socio-economic background performed significantly better than their counterparts from low socio-economic background. It was also found that pupils from educated parents performed significantly better than those from non-educated parents. The findings further revealed that pupils from a small family size performed significantly better than their counterparts from large family size in basic Science. It was concluded that family variables-socio-economic background, parental educational background and family size have significant influence on pupils academic performance in Basic Science. It was recommended among others that parents of all class should endavour to ensure that a condusive home environment is created to facilitate effective learning among their wards in order to improve their academic performance in school.
Family variables and Academic Achievement of Pupils in Basic Science in Primary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
The fact that every child in the society belongs to a family incontestable. The family provides what a learner takes with him/her to school. Apart from serving as a breeding ground for human continuity, the family is also seen as the fundamental primary and social unit in human society which sets the socialization process on course.
There, the importance of the family in the cultural moral, social, educational and general upbringing of a child cannot be overemphasized. It was in recognition of the unique role of the family that Anyawu (2017) asserted that should an evaluation of the social influence of the family be carried out, one would find that the family has a greater influence.
The home lays the foundation for goals and motivation early in the life of a child. A child first learns what is important through the values or goals that are considered most important in the society by emulating the parents. Children most often absorb the values of the parents, but even if they reject them, they will be deeply influenced by them.
Essien (2017) observed that disciplined and disciplined behaviours among children is a function of the home. To him parents acting in concert with the environment encourage indiscipline when they fail to teach appropriate societal norms and values. Parents through their parenting style have significant role to play in the behavour modification process especially as they are the pillars of the home (Owan, 2017).
Accordingly, students performance in school is a function of the interaction between their abilities and home motivation (Sarigiani, 2019) Ability includes skills development, knowledge as well as attitude Motivation on the other hand is the various ways that parents use to encourage their children to develop interest in learning.
It should be noted here that while some learners come from a wealthy home others come from a relatively poor background. There are also those whose parents are illiterate while others have educated parents. Some come from a polygamous family with large family size while others are from a monogamous family with a relatively small family size which ever category a learner belongs, it has either positive or negative effects on his or her academic life and brings with him/her to formal schooling a way of functioning which carries the imprint of his/her up bringing at home.
Provision of functional education for the children in this present economic depression has been of great concern to parents and guardians.
The home climate is a strong indicator to the aspiration and academic achievement of our children. This is because; most of the children’s sound education are now confronted with a lot of increasing difficulties as a result of home climate of which the socio-economic background had a strong hold. In privilege situation, the home is able to provide more than minimum required for good learning situation.
According to Ezewu (2013) the standard of living is high and the material comfort provided may be luxurious in the privileged homes. Children have all the necessary opportunity for education in the home although it is not impossible that the child fails to make full use of these facilities if the parent concentrates too much on their wealth and social position.
The under privileged situation is a problem situation and needs to be looked into very carefully. In depressed economic and social situation, it is difficult to learn much from such homes. In slum areas where children live in crowded apartment with parents, there is little opportunity for healthy development.
If parents themselves are too poor, they may not able to equip the home in such a way that the child derives great educational advantages at the lower level of education. Such parents are thereby faced with the problems of enriching their home environment so as to established a positive effect on the children academic performance in schools.
To this end, the effect of family background on pupils’ academic achievement in school needs not be over-emphasized.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the year there have been public outcry on the dwindling state of pupils, academic performance in both internal and external school examinations. In fact the effectiveness and the realization of the goals and objectives of the teaching-learning process have been jeopardized by the abysmal performance of pupils in school.
Researchers conducted into the possible factors responsible for the downward trend in pupils academic performance have shown that most of such factors are learner-centered. This is so because learners form poor home background may not be able to complete favourable with their counterparts from rich families. A situation where parents keep a large family size can affect the education of the children especially where such parents have little or no resources to provide for the basic educational needs of the children.
It is against the backdrop of the fact that the circumstances of one’s parental background could have a net effect on his/her academic potential in school that this study, “Family Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Basic Science in Primary Schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area” becomes imperative.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The overriding objective of this study w as to examine family variables and pupils’ academic performance in Basic Science in primary school in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
The specific objective include to:
(i) examine the academic performance of pupils from a high socio-economic background and those from low socio economic background in Basic Science in primary schools in Oruk Anam Local government Area.
(ii) examine the academic performance of pupils whose parents are educated and their counterparts whose parents are not educated in Basic science in Primary school in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
(iii) examine the academic performance of pupils from large family size and their counterparts from small family size in Basic Science in primary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in line with the specific objectives.
(i) Is the performance of pupils from high socio-economic background different from those from low socio-economic background in Basic Science?
(ii) Is the performance of pupils whose parent are educated different from those whose parent are illiterate in Basic Science?
(iii) Is the performance of pupils from large family size different from those from a small family in Basic Science?
Family variables and Academic Achievement of Pupils in Basic Science in Primary Schools
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The understated hypotheses were formulated in line with the specific objective of the study and the research questions.
(i) There is no significant difference in the academic performance of the pupils from high socio-economic background and those from low socio-economic background in Basic Science in Primary Schools.
(ii) There is no significant difference in academic performance of pupils whose parents are educated and those whose parents are not education in Basic Science in Primary Schools.
(iii) There is no significant different in academic performance of pupils from a large family size and their counterparts from a small family size in Basic Science in Primary Schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to teachers, parents, students, academic institutions, and the society in general in the following ways.
(i) It would reveal if the poor performance of pupils in Basic science and other subjects is associated with their family backgrounds.
(ii) It would provide an in depth knowledge of the home background variables that influence pupils’ academic performance in schools.
(iii) It would help government to plan and implement appropriate support programmes and provide equal access to education for all categories of learners to reduce the burdens on parents especially those with large family size and meager income.
(iv) It would add to the existing literature on family variables in relation to pupils academic performance.
(V) Finally, it would serve as a reference material and a spring-board for further research on family variables relation to pupils’ academic performance not only in Basic Science but other school subjects.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to family variables and pupils’ academic performance in Basic Science in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Analysis was on primary five pupils in the area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The major challenges that limit the scope of this study to Oruk Anam were:
(i) Inadequate fund to access research materials on the topic of the research.
(ii) The researcher’s academic work load took much of the time that would have been used for the research.
(iii) The time frame given for the research and subsequent submission of reports was too short for the researcher to reach out to large sample (the research subjects)
1.9 Operational Definition of the Terms
The following terms used in the study were conceptualized by the researcher as explained below.
Parent: A person’s father or mother.
Family Variables: the family conditions of an individual.
Socio-Economic Background: Amount of one’s income at hand or in deposit ownership of land and other economic resources.
Educational Background: The educational status of one’s parents that is being educated or non-educated.
Family Size: The total number of children in a particular family.
Academic Performance: The performance of pupils on taught lesson as assessed through test and examination.
Lawson Peter – Chief Editor in Projectvilla Nigeria. A writer and academic researcher.