HOME VARIABLES AND PUPILS DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR SKILLS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ORUK ANAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The research on home variables and pupils’ development of motor skills in public primary schools was conducted in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. The study adopted a survey research design. Two research questions and their corresponding hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Three thousand, seven hundred and sixty-two (3,762) primary five (5) pupils formed the population of the study. The simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents for the study.
A twenty (20) item Physical and Health Education achievement test was the main instrument used for data collection in the study. The data generated from the instrument were analyzed using independent t-test statistics. The results of the findings indicated that there is a significant relationship between home environment and pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools. It also revealed that there is a significant relationship between availability of play materials at home and pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools. The study therefore recommended that there should be a forum for the parents and teachers to interact so that they could work together for the development of their children in school irrespective of rural/urban home environment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 4
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – 5
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – 6
1.6 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – – 6
1.7 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.9 Definition of Terms – – – – – – 8
CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Concept of Home Variables – – – – – 9
2.2 Home Environment and Pupils’ Development of Motor Skills – 10
2.3 Availability of Play Materials at Home and Pupils’ Development
of Motor Skills – – – – – – – 14
2.5 Summary of Literature Review- – – – – 18
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Area of the Study – – – – – – – 20
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – – 21
3.3 Population for the Study – – – – – 21
3.4 Sample and sampling Technique – – – – 21
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – 22
3.6 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – 23
3.7 Administration of the Instrument – – – – 23
3.8 Scoring of the Instrument – – – – – – 24
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 24
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSES AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Analysis – – – – – – – 25
4.2 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – 27
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 29
5.2 Recommendations – – – – – – 30
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 32
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study – – – – 33
References – – – – – – – – 34
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 37
Home Variables and Pupils Development of Motor Skills in Public Primary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
The social climate or environment in which an individual finds him or herself to a large extent determines his or her behaviour and personality development. Consequently, parental guidance and discipline usually influence the development of the children and at the apex of this parental influence is the mother. It is through the home that a child learns certain basic social rules and skill development. Therefore, home is a place which the development of individual is built. Ekpo (2014) sees home as a place where every child is born into and makes first interactions. These interactions can influence the attitudes of the child permanently. As such, the development of motor skills of any child can not be separated from the environment in which the child grows up.
Healthy home background offers emotional security to the child (Agholor, 2015). The researcher further stressed that home variables related more strongly to academic outcome, than global measure of family background. The impact of home environment on child’s development of motor skills is today receiving wide acknowledgement in many educational circles within the globes. The attention in this factor is receiving it’s tend credence to this point to view that a child’s home environment and other home related variables influence the child learning and development of motor skills.
Asaga (2016) observed that the home environment and parents occupy the most important position in the child’s educational environment and whatever he could make out in the same way. This implies that parents in the home provide their wards with some of their educational needs which help them to do better in school. Akinboye (2016) traced this view from the time the child is born into the family and felt that the tone of the child’s motor or child- father interaction and the way of discipline in the family way have effect on the learn rates of the child in school. The child’s environment outside the school (his/her home background determines the child’s motor skills development.
As elucidated by Shaha and Sharma (2017), home variables have a great deal of changing influence either positively or negatively on child performance and motor skill development. This means that parents play the most important roles as one of the powerful determinates in educational progress among pupils which may lead to success or failure. Be that as it may, it can no longer be disputed that home environment enhances the learning experience of the pupils. Home variables can create conditions such as forces and external stimuli that affect the individual motor skill development as well as cognitive development.
However, it must be noted hat while there are so many factors influencing the ability of pupils to progress academically. Ozmert (2015) emphasized the importance of home variables such as parental educational background as one of the factors that affect pupils’ development of skills. This singular factors show how important the home is in the development of motor skills among their children. Meanwhile, given the background, this study was conducted to substantiate the above divergent claims by determining the underlying effect of home variables on pupils’ development of motor skills in public primary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is a known fact that the development of motor skills among pupils starts from the home being the first agents of socialization. Researchers reported that many parents where pupils leave together at home do not show any concern about the development of motor skills of the children with the hope that motor skill development can only be done by the teachers whom they expose their children to.
However, there are many variables that can contribute to development of motor skills among pupils at home. Some of such variables include parental educational background, parental income, socio-economic status of parents, parental occupation, as well as the location of home environment among others. It was based on the above premise that this study was carried out to investigate how home variables affect pupils’ development of motor skill among primary school pupils in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of home variables on pupils’ development of motor skills in public primary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. In specific terms, the study is meant to:
- Assess the effect of urban and rural home environment on pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools.
- Examine how availability of play materials at home affect pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could help in the development of motor skills among learners (pupils). Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:
It is hoped that the findings from this study would aid parents to look for different ways; which they can use to develop motor skills among their wards (children). Also, the results of this finding will provide empirical evidence to parents and pupils about the natures of parental involvement and how it affects the development of more skills among the children.
The findings of this study will equally aid parents and guardians to choose a better learning environment for their wards in both rural and urban areas for further development of motor skills among pupils. Finally, it will offer a reference material for future researchers who might choose to investigate on the same or related variables.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- To what extent does urban and rural home environment affect pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools?
- To what extent does availability of play materials at home affect pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study:
- There is no significant relationship between urban and rural home environment on pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools.
- There is no significant relationship between availability of play materials at home and pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was restricted to investigation into home variables and pupils’ development of motor skills in public primary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Among the variables only home environment, parental occupation, parental income and availability of play materials at home were considered in the study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Several problems were encountered while undertaking this research work. Some of these problems include:
- The time given for the completion of this study was not enough for a wider and more in-depth study.
- Lack of funds to procure necessary materials for the study and high cost of transportations in getting to the sample schools also hindered the study.
- The researcher also faced challenges like inability to reach out for enough print materials since it was carried out along side with other academic work.
Home Variables and Pupils Development of Motor Skills in Public Primary Schools
1.9 Definition of Terms
Home Variables: This refers to the variables which relates to home environment which pupils stay for their education or schooling.
Motor Skills: A motor skill is a function which involves the precise movement of muscle with the intent to perform a specific task.
Development: The gradual growth of something which takes to new stage that is likely to affect what happens in a continuity situation.
Home Environment: This refers to conditions or circumstances of home which a child stays with their parents for schooling. It can be in rural or urban centre.
Play Materials: This refers to the available materials at home that can help the learners during learning which improves their development of motor skills.
Pupils: Pupils in this study refers to children who are learning in primary level of education.
Home Variables and Pupils Development of Motor Skills in Public Primary Schools
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter primarily focuses on the review of existing research work carried out by the other professionals in the field of education. The review is based on the education. The review is based on the following sub-headings:
- Concept of Home Variables
- Home environment and pupils’ development of motor skills.
- Availability of play materials at home and pupils’ development of motor skills
- Summary of Related Literature
2.1 Concept of Home Variables
The home is the child’s first environment. When a child is born, he/she has all potentials of becoming whatever those in charge of his/her care and training desire of him/her. In essence the extent to which the child’s home environment affects or contributes to his/her overall development is closely linked with parents’ economic status and educational background. Research report by Alebiosu (2009) has confirmed that the child’s learning attainments are traceable to the circumstances at the home front. For instance, Isangedighe (2004), postulated that the learning environment includes the home, the school and the society in which the child finds himself.
Moreover, researchers have identified factors operative in the parents domain to include the socio-economic status (poverty level) of the child, the social environment created for the child, the infrastructural variables at home, the technological variables as well as the linquistic and culture of child’s parents to mention but a few (Ejide, 2003). Parental level of education and their income level greatly influence these variables thereby determining to a large extent the types off home a child grows.
2.2 Home Environment and Pupils’ Development of Motor Skills
Home environment of pupils has a very significant role to play in development of motor skills and educational career in the schools. In rural home environment, it is clear that many parents are farmers, while some are teachers. For the fact that many of them are farmers they leave home before bird and come back at dust weary and too tired to inquire of their children is development or social well being (Pandey, 2006).
Home environment in no small measure influences the child’s development of motor skills, hence this progress in life originate from there. To this end, Ukaome (2002) observed that the role of the family in child’s development of motor skills is a determining factor in the child’s environment. He also said that in rural home, socialization experience and family motivation contribute to the child’s development of motor skills. Again, the parent’s occupation, social status and life style of the parents determine child’s development of motor skills and response to education.
Similarly, in rural homes, Ukanu (2002), noted that to a large extent parent’s beliefs their philosophies of life, social status and political power and prestige all act as sociological factors that always influence the pupil’s development of motor skills. According to Dolado (2009), parental attitude towards farm work affect majority of pupils in rural areas. Moreover, the negative attitudes may lead to discouraging the pupils from showing interest in education. They may not give them time for private studies at home and this hinders their development of motor skills in schools.
In the study conducted by Lipton (2007), pupil’s development of motor skills, whose parents were at urban centres was better than those of their counterparts whose parents were at rural centres. This was true because the parents encourage their wards in urban home to learn since their tuition fee and the cost of other school materials needed by the pupils cannot be compared to those of pupils in the rural homes.
However, another researcher who conducted a study on the topic: Home location and development of motor skills among learners in primary schools in Anambra State (Doladi, 2009). Two research questions and their corresponding hypotheses were formulated for the study. A survey research design was adopted for the study. A questionnaire containing twelve (12) items was used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage statistics. The results indicated that rural and urban home location of parents has greater impact on the development of motor skills among pupils in primary schools.
A review of empirical studies on home variables in developing countries indicates widespread low or decreasing levels of development of motor skills among learners resulting in lower quality of education. For example, Ejide (2003) in his study found out that home variables such as parental education, parental home environment greatly influence pupils’ development of skills. In the study, there research questions and hypothesis were formulated to guide the researcher. A survey research design was employed in the study. Questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection. The data generated from the instrument were analyzed using simple percentage statistics. The results showed that home variables such as parental education, parental income and parental rural/urban home environment influence pupils’ development of motor skills.
Michayluk (2005), observed that pupils from urban residents are almost always better educated than those from rural residents regardless of sex, age, maturity, race or parentage which influence their motor skills development. He found out that pupils from rural areas are characterized by poor or late development of motor skills as compared to their counterparts in urban areas. Based on the literature, home environment is a significant factor in pupils’ development of motor skills especially at pre-primary and primary schools level.
2.3 Availability of Play Materials at Home and Pupils’ Development of Motor Skills
Play is crucial to the development of children’s gross and fine motor skills. Through play, children practice perfect control and coordination of large body movements, as well as small movements of hands and fingers. Child care providers can support young children’s motor skill development by planning play activities that provide children with regular opportunities to move their bodies (Abbott and Bartlett, 2002).
According to International Association for the Child’s Right to play (IPA) (2010), pupils’ play along with the basic need of nutrition, health, shelter, and education are vital to develop the potentials of all education. Pupils work out their internal and interpersonal conflicts, gain a sense of autonomy and effectiveness, become motivated to mastery, develop a sense of direction, self-trust, self assurance and worth through play. Play materials are categorized into two groups; indoor play materials and outdoor plays materials.
Under indoor play materials are counters, toys, dolls, shapes of wood of all sizes, san papers, pencils, crayons, magnets, plastics, puzzles, measuring spoons, charts, picture, tables, shelves, mates and face clocks. When some of these materials are provided for primary school pupils as play materials, it encourages their development of motor skills while in school. The outdoor play materials are swings, merry-go-round, climbers/ladders, slides, tunnels, tyres, sand box, balls clay, water through and bath, which equally aids in the development of motor skills. All these materials are used in carrying out different types of play. They can expand the education outlet for a child and provide dual education and motor skill development as well.
Moreover, Cook (2000) revealed that when children are given the opportunity to play with play materials, they develop superior communication skills, necessary physical ability and social unity needed in adult life and an increased cognitive and effective educational balance. Almond (2004) opined that communication is the skill needed to use language with others. This skill enables people to share informant, ideas and feelings and transfer meaning among themselves. During play activity period, pupils are made to take their turn, share in the use of equipment, react to good performances and otherwise. The child learns from the actions of his peers and also assesses himself/herself from the point of acceptance of his/her peers.
During play activities of children using play materials, several attributes are in operation such as role playing, sanction, discipline, accommodation, competition and co-operation. This makes the world of children’s play a fertile ground for training and selection of natural leaders. The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) emphasized the use of play way method in teaching the children. Children who do not have the opportunity of interacting with these play materials may find it difficult to cope with a lot of challenges ahead. Good play material (equipment) is important for children. Play equipment when chosen should be within the children’s interest and ability.
Toys, books, records, games and other objects used as play materials should show respect for the children’s world e.g. age. Staplier (2011) observed that play grounds are often where pupils learn important social and motor skills that they will use for the rest of their life. Play ground equipment teaches children the value of sharing, patience, discipline, hard work and others.
As observed by Martin (2000), specific activities that support gross motor skill development include running at different speeds, jumping rope, playing hopscotch, tossing and catching balls of different sizes, pitching bean bags, climbing in many different directions, pedaling riding toys, pulling wagons or toys, pushing toy strollers or brooms, and filling and emptying buckets and other containers. Also, gross motor skill development happens inside as well as outside. A crawling tunnel, ride-on car, or pull toy can help children practice large movements of their arms and legs.
Critically, pupils need to play on the floor, with free range of motion, in order to acquire important motor skills. Equipment intended to keep pupils stationary may actually impede development of motor skills (Abbott, 2002). For example, pupils who spend long periods of time in baby walkers tend to walk later than pupils who do not. Acquiring motor skills is just one part of children’s development. Mastering both fine and gross motor skills are important for pupil’s growth and independence. Having good motor control helps pupils explore the world around them and also helps with their cognitive development.
Pupils are learning everyday through play by experiencing new textures, sounds, colors and patterns. Parents don’t need expensive toys for this to happen. Play with baby and let them explore using items you already have around the house (play materials). Parents may not realize that having play materials like a bucket and wooden spoon can be a ton of fun for their wards! (Schneider, 2009). To ensure that pupils grow to their full potential, they should be provided with opportunity for play using play materials; especially outdoor activities for proper development of motor skills.
2.4 Summary of Related Literature
The research on home variables and pupils’ development of motor skills in primary schools has been a crucial issue in recent times. Based on the objectives of the study, the researcher has been able to some extent analyze various contributions of some notable authors towards the influence of home variables on pupils’ development of motor skills while in primary schools.
The review of literature revealed that pupil’s development of skills whose parents were at urban centre was better than that of their counterparts whose parents were at rural centre. It finally elucidated that when some materials such as indoor and outdoor plays materials are provided for primary school pupils as play materials, it encourages their development of motor skills while in primary school.
This chapter presented the method and design employed in this study under the following sub-headings: research design, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrument for data collection, validation of instrument, scoring of the instrument and method of data analysis.
3.1 Area of the Study
This study was carried out in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Oruk Anam is considered as the second largest Local Government in Akwa Ibom State with about 377 villages. The area is bounded in the North by Ukanafun, in the South by River State, in the West by Ikot Abasi and in the East by Abak Local Government Area.
The dominant occupation of people in the area is farming and trading. Most of the people are farmers and petty traders while few are civil servant. The people of Oruk Anam are mainly Christians and generally peaceful, though few people and still practicing traditional religion. Oruk Anam is one of the palm oil producing areas in Akwa Ibom State. The study area has both primary and secondary schools for the training of the younger generations.
3.2 Research Design
The research design employed for this study was a survey research design. It involved the use of questionnaire to obtain opinion from the respondents on the variables invested. The reason was that the study intends to highlight how home variables influence development of motor skills among primary school pupils in Oruk Anam Government Area.
3.3 Population of the Study
The population for this study consists of all the primary five (5) pupils in 2018/2019 academic session within the year. Oruk Anam Local Government Area has thirteen (18) public primary schools located in the area with the total of three thousand, seven hundred and sixty-two (3,762) pupils in primary five (5) classes (Oruk Anam Local Education Authority, 2018).
Lawson Peter – Chief Editor in Projectvilla Nigeria. A writer and academic researcher.