Parental Background and Students Academic Achievement in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

Parental Background and Students Academic Achievement in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the influence of parental background on students’ academic achievement in Business Studies in Onna Local Government Area. Three research questions were posted to guide the study. The population of the study comprised all JSS 3 students in Business Studies in the nine (9) public secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area. Totally 1,000 students in the 2014/2015 academic session, two hundred and forty students were randomly selected from six secondary schools using a stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using a questionnaire and an achievement test.

Data collected were analyzed using mean statistics. The findings of the study revealed that parental educational attainment, occupation and family income influenced students’ academic achievement in business studies in Onna Local Government Area. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended among others, that teachers should adopt teaching techniques that would enable students with family related learning difficulties to participate in learning activities along with the rest of the students.

 

Parental Background and Students Academic Achievement in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Parental background characteristics to a greater extent determine students’ performance in school and their adjustment to life. The poor performance of students in examination in recent times could be attributed to the changing life pattern in some families coupled with the present economic hardship which has made most families unable to meet up with their responsibilities of ensuring a healthy and literate family. Other evidence suggested that heredity and other home related variable including parents’ level of education; home facilities, family income, home discipline, parent occupation etc. may play a significant role on students’ learning habit.

Ngnun (2010) observed that parents can bring much influence to bear upon a child’s knowledge and academic development. This stems from the fact that life starts at home as the child spends a greater part of his childhood days with his/her parents and the home prepares individuals for later life at school and at work. What we are and what we do as adults is largely determined by the ways in which our parents allowed us to experience the event of childhood. Thus, the nature of interaction a child has with members of his/her family and the environment has a great impact on the child’s intellectual, social and physical development. It is the family that lays the foundation for all aspects of the child’s academic development. 

The size of the family in which a child grows affects his/her intellectual development, this is because in a large size family, a child may not be given the required attention especially in his/her academic as the family will have move persons to cater for. The issue of home works, payment of school fees, attending of Parents-Teachers Association and many more may not be convenient for the parents as they have to cater for many children, while children are well catered for and they perform better in small-size family. The socio-economic background of a family impacts negatively on the gross performance of the child.

According to Durojaiye (2010), family financial resources, which are associated with parents’ occupation, and educational attainment, often imply increased learning opportunities both at home and in school. Better educated parents can contribute to their children’s learning through their day-to-day interactions with their children and involving themselves in their children’s school work. The family, and not the school provides the first educational experiences of the child, and most often the unconscious conditions provided for the child are more effective than the one deliberately done by the school. Thus, there should be unity and comfort in the family.

In Nigeria, most families are poor and cannot adequately afford 3-square meals not to talk of meeting the educational needs of their children. This indeed has serious implications on the learning and performance of students in schools, as such students from such families are forced to miss classes, unable to do their assignments and most seriously are driven from school due to non-payment of school fees. All these, have significant effects on the development of the child.

Indeed, family background is the foundation for children’s development, as such family background in terms of parental educational attainment, occupation and family income play important role in children academic achievement in Business Studies. Atakpa (2014) however, prior that in 1977, no subject was called Business Studies in Nigeria education system, it came into existence as a result of the introduction of junior secondary school (JSS) in the 6-3-3-4 system of education in 1981, with five specific subject area which include typewriting, office practice, commerce and Bookkeeping.

Due to the need to transform our secondary school system to be in tune with global and national demands, the FRN through NERDC made typewriting and elective subject while insurance and store management were added to Business Studies in 2008.

Business Studies form a means of laying foundation for national, technological, economical advancement and for higher education. Atakpa (2014) posits that it is the aspect of education that concerns itself with vocational and professional preparation for career in business. Aliyn (2016) sees it as a comprehensive, practice and skill subject while Ogben (2018) maintained that Business Studies equips students with knowledge and skills that will help them to find a job after schooling or create their own employment. Business Studies is also to integrate the key concept with the four social science learning area which is the economic world, etc. This helps the students to understand business formation, functions of business, people in business etc. as well as to apply it in their future life.

 

Parental Background and Students Academic Achievement in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Poor academic achievement of students in Business Studies in Akwa Ibom State has been of much concern to all and sundries. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely academic fallen standard in education in Onna Local Government Area in particular.

Bassey (2010) added that the problem include among others inadequate provision of textbooks, instructional materials and parental involvement toward child’s education as a result of low level of parental education attainment, most a time those from low family income who cannot provide the needed equipment and material for their children to use in learning.

Bassey (2012) maintained that the indices of poor academic achievement  of Junior Secondary schools  students in internal and external examination of Community Secondary Commercial School, Ikot Akpan Eshiet and Oniong West Secondary School, Ikot Edo between 2010-2011 result shows that out of 565 that registered for Business Studies in each school 265 (52.04%) got credit and above  and the  rest got ordinary pass, failed or were absent.

As a result of the poor academic achievement of the students observed, Bassey (2012) maintain that the overall poor performance at public examination in Onna Local Government Area in particular at the secondary school level reveal the rising low quality of education being provided against planned expectation. Thus, the question is to what extent does parental background influence academic achievement of students in Business Studies.

This researcher is interested to investigate whether parents background really influence students’ academic achievement in Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study was to examine the influence of parental background on academic achievement of students in Business Studies in Onna Local Government Area. The specific purposes of the study were:

  1. To examine whether parental level of education influence students’ academic achievement in Business Studies.
  2. To ascertain whether parental occupation influences students’ academic achievement in Business Studies.
  3. To assess whether family income influences students’ academic achievement in Business Studies.

Parental Background and Students Academic Achievement in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

1.4   Significance of the Study

The findings of this will be of immense benefit to the following:

  1. To teachers the knowledge gain from the findings will assist them to be resourceful in handling the various students irrespective of their family background in order to equip them for a successful academic achievement in subject area.
  2. To State Ministry of Education, through this study they should make provision for training teachers, organize induction courses, seminars, conferences and workshops on new teaching method.
  3. To researchers through this study, other researchers will gain by using it as a reference material for more research work, and this will also help the future researchers to have ideas on those factors affecting academic achievement of students.

 

1.5   Research Questions

To guide this study, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. Does parental educational attainment influence students’ academic achievement in Business Studies?
  2. Does parental occupation influence students’ academic achievement in Business Studies?
  3. Does family income influence students’ academic achievement in Business Studies?

Parental Background and Students Academic Achievement in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

1.6   Delimitation of the Study

This study covers only the influence of parental background and students’ academic achievement in business studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Onna Local Government Area. This study will be conducted in public junior secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.7   Limitation of the Study

In writing a research study like this, certain limitation are bound to occur, these are; the time given for the completion of this study was inadequate to make a research like this have a wider scope. Financial constraints exerted pressures on the study as the researcher scarcely had enough financial resources to enable her expand the scope of the study.

 

 1.8   Definition of Terms

 For clarity sake, the following terms as associated with this study are defined thus:

Business Studies: This is a comprehensive, practical and skill subjects that equip students with knowledge and skills that will help them to find a job after schooling or help them create their own employment

Academic achievement: This is the level of knowledge or skill attained by a student in a given subject usually designated by a test scores or grade obtained.

Socio-economic status: It is the position of the family in the stratification system which has a close relationship to the educational attainment of the children or can be defined as one of the prime factors in unequal educational achievement at all level of education.

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