Parents Social Status and Students Self-Concept in Secondary Schools


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1.1  Background to the Study

       There is no gainsaying that, education is the best legacy parents can give to their children. The development of the nation starts from the family. When the family succeeds in teaching and impacting good values in their children, the country becomes a better place to live. According to compbell and WU (2014), home environment and family processes provide a network of physical, social and intellectual forces and factors which affect the students’ learning. Song and Hattie (2014) agreed that families from different socio- economic groups create different learning environments. There is no doubt that parents’ attitudes help to condition their children’s attitudes.

        One of the key variables when discussing the influence of the home on self-concept is the parental socio- economic background.  Socio- economic background, according to Schaeter (2013), refers to the relative position occupied by an individual in a society in comparison to others. It deals with education, occupation, wealth and fame of the family. Several studies have revealed that, there is a positive relationship between parental socio- economic status and the children’s self- concept.

        (Cole,2014, Hearn, 2011). As noted by Woadard (2011), agreed that the child self concept is a function of the learning environment among which is the parents.

        According to Fraser (2016), students’ self-concept is affected by parents’ educational qualification, family size, general standard of living, cognitive and behavioral influences, academic motivation, available medical and health care, and some other parental background factors which may affect students’ self-concept.

        Due to the persistent falling in students’ academic performance, there is a need to examine the influence of parents’ characteristics on the students’ self concept and the relationship between student’ home environment and their personality development that could also influence their academic performance.

Parents Social Status and Students Self-Concept in Secondary Schools

1.2  Statement of the Problem

The gap in performance between students and academic excellence constitute a great source of worry and serious concern as well as discomfiture to both parents, school agencies, policy makers and various governments responsible for the education of students in secondary schools.

Experience has shown that among the secondary school students‘ there exist some differences in students’ academic  performance, such as some students being able to pay their fees promptly, while others  were often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some students have problem with the provision of uniform but others do not. Likewise, some students were motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books, others were not, where as some students come to school properly feed, others not.

One then wonders whether the influence of family background had played in these issues. Therefore, it became necessary to examine how parents’ educational, economic and occupational background and the kind of self-concept they developed in comparison to others in terms of academic performance in Oruk Anam Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. This study was an attempt to find reasonable answer to this question.


1.3     Objectives of the Study

        The general objective of this study was to examine the relative effects of paternal social status on the students’ perception of themselves. Specially, the study sought to

  • Find out the influence of parental educational status on students’ perception of the them self in secondary schools
  • Examine the influence of parental occupation on students’ percept of themselves in achieving studies in secondary schools.
  • Find out the influence of parental income level on students’ perception of themselves in secondary schools.

Parents Social Status and Students Self-Concept in Secondary Schools

1.4    Significance of the Study

        It is expected that the finding of this study will provide useful information to guidance, counselors for their effective counseling of parents and students on their perception matters. It is also expected that the findings of this study will help teachers to develop interest with a view to helping all their students to get the best from their academic endeavors. The findings of this study are also expected to add to the  existing body of knowledge on the influence of home characteristics on academic performance of students.

       Finally, the finding of this study will provide empirical data on the influence of the selected home variables on students’ self- concept.

1.5    Research Questions

1      How does parental educational status influence students’ perception of themselves?

2      In what way does parental occupational status influence students’ perception of themselves in secondary schools?

3      To what extent does parental income level influence students’ perception of themselves in secondary schools?


1.6            Limitation of the Study

This study was faced with some problems like inadequate time due to the regular course work at the college, lack of fund which made the exercise tedious for the researcher to carry out the research in all the secondary schools in the study area. It was therefore restricted to only selected public secondary schools.

1.7     Delimitation Of The Study

This study was restricted to investigate the influence of parents’ social status on students’ self concept in learning in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

Parents Social Status and Students Self-Concept in Secondary Schools

1.8     Definition of Terms

  • Socio-economic status: This is a person’s position in the society been determined by education, occupation, wealth and social class.
  • Self-concept: This is used to explain the way an individual look at himself or herself in comparison to others in the group.
  • Academic Performance: This is seen as the knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects usually described by test scores or marks by teachers.
  • Communication skills: The ability to convey information to another effectively and efficiently.
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