Abstract: This study examines the influence of Instructional Approaches and Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. Two (2) research questions were stated to guide the study. A quasi–experimental design was used as a research design of the study. The population of the study comprised of all the 18Physical and Health Education teachers in the study areas. A sample size of 18 physical and health education teachers in the study were chosen from nine (9) public secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area through a purposive sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was a structured checklist assessing the instructional approaches and physical and health education teaching in secondary schools. Simple percentage was used to analyze the data. The result of the finding revealed that there is a significant influence of teacher –centered approach on physical and health education teaching in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area and it also revealed that there is a significant influence of learner – centered approach on physical and health education teaching in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that teacher – centered approach should be adopted in school system for effective teaching delivery and learner – centered approach should be made compulsory in schools for effective teaching delivery.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Physical and Health Education is a formal content area of study in secondary schools that is standards based and encompasses assessment based on standards and benchmark. Physical and Health Education is defined by Robinson (2010) “as a planned and standards-based program of curricula and institution designed to develop motor skills, knowledge and behaviours of healthy active living, physical fitness, sportsmanship, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence”.
As a school subject, physical and health education is focused on teaching school-aged children the science and methods of physically active and healthful living (NASPE, 2012). It is an avenue for engaging in developmentally appropriate physical activities designed for children to develop their fitness, gross motor skills and health (wood, 2011).
To understand the component of physical and health education, a teacher need to teach in order to bring desirable change in loaners through the utilization of appropriate instructional approaches. Yadar (2014) stated that teaching is an “art” but the success of a teacher has in making his subject so simple as to make it intelligible for his students. He further stated that in order to make students learn effectively, the teacher has to adopt the right approach of teaching. Udoji (2011) opined that the selection of appropriate approaches for an instruction depends on the type of lesson whether practical or theoretical, the competence of the teacher to handle the approach and nature of instruction itself. Teacher therefore should select approaches that are appropriate to the demand of their instructions and students’ learning needs.
Instructional approach is a set of principles, beliefs or ideas about the nature of learning which is translated into the classroom. Albert (2012) opined that instructional approaches are techniques teachers use to help students become independent and strategies learners. These approaches become learning strategies when students independently select the appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals. A process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experiences of the learner to achieve desirable outcomes. It may be regarded as a broad and consistent manner of teaching that is guided by certain basic principles or beliefs. Nduka (2012) added that instructional approach is a stand to which a teacher use in explaining a particular subject or lesson to the learners.
Felder (2013) in his opinion stated that regular poor academic performance by most students in Physical Health Education is centered on ineffective instructional approaches utilizes by teachers to impact knowledge to learners. Archibong (2010) opined that the interest which students show in Physical and Health Education and the mastery they demonstrate on completion of a course of study depend on the teaching approaches and materials used. Ali (2012) also asserted that teachers need to be in full knowledge of numerous instructional approaches thattake recognition of the magnitude of complicity of the concept to be observed.
Several factors have been advanced as affecting Physical and Health Education as well as the students’ academic achievement in Physical and Health Education, thesis include the students’ factors, teachers factors, societal factors, governmental infrastructural problem, language of instructions, instructional approaches employed by the teachers and recently students’ learning differences (Williams, 2013).
For effective teaching delivery by teachers, there is need to strive for a balance of effective teaching approaches such as teacher-centred, learn-centre, direct, indirect, constructivist, interactive, individualistic and collaborative. In Nigeria for example, teachers are familiar with some of the teaching approaches but the question is that does these teaching approaches help students’ understands the concept or enhance academic achievement in Physical and Health Education if employed by teachers in the classrooms?
Teachers can encourage autonomous learning, first by recognizing the importance of viewing students as self directed learners and second by the selection of appropriate student-centred and teacher-centred instructional approaches. The selection of these approaches should be made in consultation with individual students so that they become aware of their own learning needs and ability to meet them (Joyce, 2012).
It is ageists this background that the researcher investigated the influence of instructional approaches (Teacher-centered and learner-centered), on Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study of science instills in students’ diligence, perseverance and observation with the learners. Physical and Health Education as a science subject is an education that promote proper growth of a child and a child is learnt better by participating in create activity which in turn add values to his/her personality.
The teaching of Physical and Health Education in secondary schools which has over the years yielded ineffective teaching by the teacher and the poor academic achievement of students is of enormous consent to the people and government at large. The fact is that, students do not understand a particular subject without utilization of a proper instructional approach. Udosen (2011) stated that instructional approach is what brings the teacher in contact with the learners.
Therefore, it is necessary to know the influence of instructional approaches (teacher-centered and learner-centered) on Physical and Health Education teaching in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.