Realia Resources utilization and teaching of Genetics in secondary schools


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1.1    Background to the Study

The Bedrock on which modern day technological breakthrough anchors on is science. Different authors according to their own understanding have defined science. Igule (2013) defined science as a systematic study of the nature of the behaviour of the material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, measurement and recoding in addition,

Esu (2014) defined science as a systematic, precise, objective way to study the natural world. Science is often an exciting and satisfying enterprise that requires creativity, skill and insight based on this Fape (2017) defined science as rationally structured knowledge about nature, which embraces systematic methods of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, learning and application. The major goal of science education is to develop scenically literate individuals that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions.

The objectives of science education in this country according to Maduekwe (2016) include the need to prepare students to observe and explore the environment, explain simple natural phenomenal, develop scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity, apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self- confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science.

Biology is one of the science subjects that senior secondary school students offer at the senior levels in the Nigerian secondary schools (Esu, 2014). Biology is a very important science subject and a requirement for further learning of a number of science- related professional courses like medicine, agriculture, pharmacy etc. in contemporary Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development. As a result, students are being encouraged to take up science­—related subjects.

Today, Biology pervades literally every field of human endeavaur, and plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. This is seen in all the technological advancement in the world today, which is because of scientific investigations. However, the issue remains that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, there is high rate of failure in the subject. Studies have shown that secondary school students are exploiting low interest in Biology (Esiobu, 2015). This low interest of students in biology has been traced to poor achievement in examinations. Unfortunately, achievement of students in biology at the end of the secondary school has not improved in the last decade (Obangal 2015).

Folorunso (2014) has linked poor achievement trend in biology particularly to the lack of instructional resources in schools due to poor funding of schools. The poor funding of schools has hindered the principals from providing the teachers with adequate instructional resources.

Genetics is the study of heredity and variation in living organisms. It which is a field of biology and biology is one of the core subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. Hence, an encouragement to learn biology especially at the senior secondary schools level is of paramount importance. Practical works constitute an integral part of biology. Ndu (2014), states that practical work help the students to learn various skill and gives student a series of achievement when they themselves make discoveries and agile at scientific conclusion through their own experiments.

Realia Resources utilization is inevitable in teaching of practical skill in Biology. It makes teaching and learning more meaningful and real.  Ige (2010), defined instructional resources as modern science equipment, library, printed materials, project media, real and stimulated aids, visual and audio visual aids, science resources and school environment.

Wugep and Angbo (2010), review that Realia resources include both human activities and materials. Without human resources, teaching and learning of practical skills in biology will not take place effectively on the other hand, human resources will not alone communicate learning.

The studies by Isola (2011) has shown that lack of adequate supply of science equipment, improper management and utilization of available equipment in teaching is what leads to low achievement in science.

Soyibo (2016) in his own view states that the poor performance of biology students in schools was attributed to proper utilization of the laboratory equipment by the teachers. The problem of this study is therefore to find out the state of Realia Resources and the utilization in teaching and learning of Genetics in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.


Realia Resources utilization and teaching of Genetics in secondary schools

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is obvious that Research studies, past and present, West African Examination councils’ Examiners report on students’ performance in the senior school certificate biology Examinations over the years indicate a persistent trend of students’ poor performance (Okeke and Ochuba, 2012). Among the factors indicted for students poor academic performance in biology are poor knowledge of practical exercises and poor interpretation of experimental set ups. These problems are but a reflection of teachers’ instructional methods.

Other factors blamed in clued failure on the part of biology teachers to use instructional materials such as realia among others in their lesson delivery. Therefore, it was of the interest of the researcher to examine the extent of Realia resources utilization and teaching of Genetics in secondary schools in Etim Ekmpo Local Government Area.

Realia Resources utilization and teaching of Genetics in secondary schools

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate Realia Resources utilization and teaching of Genetics in secondary school in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.

The specific objectives are;

  • To find out the extent of utilization of Realia Resources in the teaching of Genetics.
  • To find out if teachers’ gender affect the utilization of Realia Resources in the teaching of genetics.
  • To find out if the utilization of Realia Resources affect the teaching of genetics.


1.5 Significance of the Study

Realia resources have been in existence for along time, but they are often under utilization of the hindrances to maximum performance of science students’ the study will be of benefit to students, teachers and the society at large.

Discoveries from the study will guide teachers, Government, sponsoring bodies and donors on the purchase of not only Realia Resources but also other resources for schools for effective teaching and learning.

1.6 Limitation of the Study

This study was faced with a number of difficulties such as difficulty in administering of the questionnaire by the researcher on the sample schools academic work load, financial constraints and limited time factor.


1.7 Delimitation

This study was delimited to Realia Resources utilization and teaching of Genetics in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Analysis was on biology teachers in the selected schools.

Realia Resources utilization and teaching of Genetics in secondary schools

1.8 Definition of Terms

To ensure readers under standing. It was necessary to define certain terms in the context they were used in this study.

Realia Resources: it is the use of real objects that students can touch, feel and even smell to effective teaching.

Teaching: This is the process of impacting knowledge to the learner by the teacher, such knowledge include moral, practical and religious belief.

Genetics: is the study genetic, variation and heredity in the living organisms.

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