School Types and Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools Mathematics


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This study examines school types and pupils academic performance in primary school mathematics. The target population of the study averts the primary six (6) pupils in the Area of study a specific sample size of the hundred pupils were randomly selected from ten public primary schools in the study area. The data collected for the study was obtained from a questionnaire called school types and pupils academic performance in mathematics questionnaire (STAPAPQ). Simple percentage was employed as the statistical tool to answer the research questions. Findings revealed that there is a significance relationship between school types and pupils performance in Primary school Mathematics. It was recommended that Government should provide facilities, grants and aids for both public and private schools.


School Types and Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools Mathematics




1.1  Background to the Study

Over the years, many parents often endeavor to choose for their wards schools which offer the greatest opportunities for enhanced academic achievement. By doing so, they also put into consideration certain factors such as cost, quality of teaching, availability of basic facilities (instructional) and of course location in-terms of distance and environment or locality. From another perspective, some parents are opposed to schools located in village or hamlets because frequent use of the local dialect by peer during school hours and at home hinder the chances of acquiring proficiency in Mathematics which embraced problems solving as English is also used in teaching mathematics.

Idhile examining factors that affect learning Akinade (2016) outlined in two groups to include natural and environmental. Under the environmental factors were the homes, school as well as the teacher factors. The first sub-factor mentioned under the school factor was being owned by Federal, Armed forces, private state government or community owned school. From the above, school type by ownership is properly grouped into two. These two are either that of the government (public) or owned by an individual, group (private).

According to Okoro (2011), school type determines the psychological environment, class-size, physical facilities as well as other teacher related factors. Presently, the practice of free and compulsory education had given rise to the population in our public school which had affected the class-size and the usage of the available facilities owned by the school.

The cases in our private schools are different as fewer parents are able or willing to pay fees for their wards to acquire sound and qualitative education. The nature of facilities in the school determined the nature of learning that takes place there. Nwankwo (2017) noted that the nature, condition, adequacy and relevance of school facilities such as library, laboratory, classroom equipment and other convenience definitely have direct impact on the learning engagement.

Mathematics with it abstract nature require a competent teacher, small class-size and availability of teaching and learning aids to be effectively taught and learned by our learners. Presently, there are teachers may not be available in all subjects area so as to teach as specialist. Subjects are assigned to teachers to keep them running in the system (Ajayi, 2017).

Private schools owned by well placed individuals have qualified teachers, facilities and small class-sizes that can affect influence learning positively. The nature of school in terms of teaching, science, grammar or commercial vocational school will determine the relevance they place on individual subjects.

Grammar will do much on language, vocation for handwork, technical and science schools will add much value to the teaching of mathematics. This fact makes mathematics central as a primary schools subject as it will be require at least basic knowledge standard. This research is to examine the effect of school types on academic performance of pupils in mathematics in primary schools.


1.2  Statement of the Problem

The arrival of Western education had removed the training of children informally from the hands of parents to a whole dependence on learning in the schools. Parents so much depend on schools to teach the children all that they expert to prepare them for challenges they will be facing in the future. This is seen in the crèche, nursery and the kindergarten in our private schools. Our public primary schools only have the Early Childhood care and Education class 1 and 2. Thus, the gap existing in the quality of work offered by our public and private schools are clearly seen. The availability of facilities, personnel and supervision given to both type of schools will determine the quality of work done in the schools.

The problems so far identified in the research work are;

  • The class-size in our public school is overpopulated and so affects learning of mathematics negatively.
  • Facilities in our public schools are not enough for effective teaching/learning process.
  • Private schools do not have quality staff.
  • Mathematics in both public and private schools requires professional teachers not any trained teacher.
  • Supervision in both schools types is not regular as it was three decades ago.

Since the above had been identified as problems of this study, the researcher wishes to examine school types and pupils academic performance in primary schools mathematics.


1.3  Purpose of the Study 

The main purpose of this study was to examine school types and the impact it has on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools mathematics in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. Other purposes of this study are:

  • to find out the extent of public school influence on the performance of pupils in primary school mathematics.
  • to determine the influence of private school in pupils performance in primary school mathematics.
  • to examine the difference in the performance of pupils in primary school mathematics resulting from school type.

School Types and Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools Mathematics

1.4  Research Questions

The following questions were asked and used as guide in this study:

  • to what extent does public primary schools affect the performance of pupils in mathematics?
  • to what extent does private primary school influence the performance of pupils in mathematics?
  • is there any noticeable difference in the performance of pupils in mathematics resulting from public or private primary school?


1.5  Research Hypotheses

(i)    there is no significant influence of public primary school on pupils performance in mathematics.

(ii)   there is no significant influence of private primary school or pupils performance in mathematics.

(iii)  there is no significant difference noticeable in the performance of pupils in primary school mathematics and their school type (public or private).


1.6  Significance of the Study

This study will be of benefit to our pupils, parents, teachers and the general public at large in the following ways:

  • our pupils will understand that some schools depending on the type of ownership do perform better than other and will make hard-work their goal for success.
  • Parents will notice the difference existing between public and private schools and thus determine which one is enrolling the wards.
  • Our teachers will be hard-working on their part not mining the school type they found themselves.
  • Proprietors, principals, head teachers by reading through this study shall embrace effective supervision as well as motivate their staff for positive performance in both schools types.

School Types and Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools Mathematics

1.7  Limitation of the Study 

The major set backs faced in this study were lack of reference materials and non-compliance of school authorities with the researcher in the release of terminal score of pupils to be used as primary data to back up the study. The few relevant reference materials were on line and were protect from copying.


1.8  Scope of the Study

This study was kept under control by laying emphasis on Mkpat Enin Local Government Area only. Nothing was done through correspondent but only respondents present in school during visitation were used.

1.9   Definition of Terms

Some words were defined according to bothering were used in this contest:

School:   A place where people are taught by teacher for acquisition of knowledge, skills and behaviour.

School Type:    Who owns school that is public government or private/individuals or groups.

Public School: School owned by the community, state or the government.

Private School:   School owned by individual or groups without the government providing for them in funds or facilities.

Performance: How good or badly something is done.

Mathematics:   a school subject mostly concern with numbers and some basic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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