Status of Facilities and the Teaching of Home Economics in Secondary Schools


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1.1     Background to the Study

Home Economics as an aspect of Vocation Education, is practically “oriented” and “skilled” based, which requires the provision of human and material resources for its adequate teaching and learning. Funds are needed to hire competent teachers, teaching facilities, equipment, laboratories and instructional materials. Quality teaching is purposeful and expensive; this supports the assertion of the National Policy on Education (2004) that Education is an expensive social service and requires adequate financial provision from all tiers of government for successful implementation of the educational programmes.

The need for adequate funding of Home Economics programmes cannot be underestimated, hence Ajala (2012) and Uko-Aviomoh’s (2015) assertion that Home Economics is an entrepreneurial- based, skill oriented field of study which is expected to equip learners with saleable skills that make for self-reliance, self employment and paid employment cannot be neglected.

According to Obunadike (2018), Home Economics programme is expected to equip the learner with skills in originality in thinking, seeing things differently, creatively solving difficult problems, introducing new approaches and strategies, and catching attention and interest in firm career commitment such as setting up business, marketing services or being productive employees of an organization. These expectations cannot be achieved without adequate funding. Learning resource materials are very valuable to the teaching and learning of Home Economics, it will help the teachers to improve on the teaching skills through the provision of stimulating learning environment like excursions, fieldtrips, exhibitions and prize giving day activities.

The need for adequate funding of Home Economics programme is of inestimable value, whether they are human or material resources. Funding and procuring of human or material resources will facilitate the acquisition of skills, knowledge, attitudes and abilities needed for technological advancement of the individual and subsequently improve national economy.


According to Inyang-Abia (2011) the use of instructional resources, whether print or non-prints in a lesson class enhances comprehension among learners could have the capacity to turn abstract concepts to real life situation. This observation further gives credence to the important of instructional facilities to the teaching of Home Economics in secondary schools.

Inyang-Abia (2011), further seen a situation where many secondary school teachers adapt the “ Talk-and –chalk” approach in the teaching of science in Nigeria nothing that this situation will not only render the entire class dull and uninteresting but also hinder effective teaching and learning of the subject matter in consonance with the views of Inyang-Abia (2011) Awosika (2016), posted that the teacher need careful planning to use appropriate models, specimens, charts and regalia in creating insight for understanding the processes in Home Economics above and beyond those possible through verbal explanations Wikipedia (2014) reported that Home Economics involve cookery and other aspects of household management which requires the effective use of appropriate facilities in the teaching process so that the learners can acquire the descried competence.

Note worthy is the fact that many student in this field especially at the secondary school level do not seem to be able to show the least of these competences in Home Economics while many schools do not seem to be prepared for the practical involvement in this subject.

This study therefore, will assess the status of these Home facilities in secondary schools and also find out these facilities in secondary are actually utilized effectively in a manner that would guarantee attainment of instructional goal in the subject, in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.


Status of Facilities and the Teaching of Home Economics in Secondary Schools

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The researcher personally observed over the years that many secondary schools lack adequate and relevant instructional resources for the teaching of Home Economics. Laboratories for Home Economics are also ill-equipped while some teachers of the subject also lack the desired competences for teaching and competences in the use of Home Economics facilities.

In another perspective, media reports also showed that there is significance relationship between instructional facilities and academic performance in the subject particularly in public examinations like the Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE). The researcher is afraid if this situation is allowed to continue it will lead to low enrolment of students in this field at tertiary level of education as well as shortage of man power in this area among the indigene of Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

The nagging issue in this direction is whether non-availability of relevant facilities are responsible for student’s poor academic achievement in Home Economics or whether their efficient utilization of the facilities during a lesson class could contribute to poor academic performance  in Home Economics among secondary school students in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.


1.3     Purpose of the Study

The general objective of the study is to investigate into the status of facilities and the teaching of Home Economics in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Specifically, the study seeks to:

(i)      Assess the extent of availability of Home Economics facilities among secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

(ii)     Examine the extent of utilization of facilities and their influences on academic achievement in the subject.

1.4     Significance of the Study

The result of this investigation will serve as a reference manual for future researches on related topics. Provide relevant information on the importance of adequate facilities on teaching and learning Home Economics in secondary schools. It will also educate teachers and students on the need to use suitable facilities in teaching and learning of Home Economics particularly in secondary schools.


1.5     Research Questions

It was pertinent to raise the following questions to direct the study:

(i)      What is the influence of availability of facilities on students academic achievement in Home Economics?

(ii)     Does utilization of facilities influence academic achievement of students in Home Economics?

1.6     Research Hypotheses

Two null hypotheses were proposed to guide the study as follows:

(i)      There is no significant difference in academic achievement in Home Economics students taught in schools with sufficient facilities and those taught in schools without sufficient facilities.

(ii)     There is no significant difference in academic achievement in Home Economics students taught with instructional facilities and those taught without using instructional facilities.


Status of Facilities and the Teaching of Home Economics in Secondary Schools

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study was limited to an investigation in to status of facilities and the teaching of Home Economics in secondary schools. It was also restricted in area of coverage to Oruk Anam Local Government Area only.

Hence, findings on the issue was not generalized as it remained valid to Oruk Anam Local Government Area where the research was conducted.

1.8     Limitations of the Study

The researcher was confronted by three major problems which posed reasonable obstacles to the success of this great work.  Firstly, there was time constraint as one semester time-frame allocated for the completion and submission of this report by the College Authority was hardly enough to a project of this magnitude.

Secondly, the researcher did not benefit from any external funding of the project. And the financial contribution upon which the researcher depended was scarcely sufficient to procure and produce materials required for this exercise.

Moreover, the researcher was faced with some difficulties in gaining access to Home Economics laboratories to assess the extent of availability and useability of the facilities in some secondary schools in the area due to hectic bureaucratic processes in those schools.


1.9     Operational Definition of Terms

Home Economics: This refers to a branch of study which deals with cookery and other aspects of household management especially as taught in schools.

Teaching: This is a systematic impartation of knowledge or skills from one person called the teacher to another person or group of persons called learners.

Learning: This refers to acquisition of knowledge or skills by a learner/learners particularly in educational institutions.

Academic Achievement: This refers to formative evaluation of student’s ability in a particular subject activity in the entire schools.

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