Study Habit and Academic Performance of Adult Learners


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The study was designed to investigate study habit and academic performance of Adult learners in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. The population of the study was 213 adult learners in the 2015/2016 academic session. One hundred adult learners were randomly selected in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area for the study. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Questionnaire on Study Habit and Academic Performance of Adult Learners was used as instrument for data collection.

Data analysis was done using simple percentage findings showed that there is a significant difference in academic performance of adult learners who adopted personal timetable and those who do not adopt personal timetable and also that there is a significant difference in academic performance of adult learners who adopt note-taking study habit and those who do not adopt note-taking study habit in Etim Ekpo local Government Area. Based on these findings, it is recommended that adult learners should adopt good study habits in studying so as to improve their academic performance.


Study Habit and Academic Performance of Adult Learners 



1.1    Background to the Study

Study is considered essential for the overall development of a human being. It is an art which provide human being with the foundation upon which to erect his or her understanding of life as well as the element with which to build his/her world view. Clerk and Rumbold (2016) Bamin, Kazi and Hasan (2013) observed that in addition to personal and mental developments, study is critical for ensuring ones access to social, economic and civic life. Studying is considered to be crucial for people from all cross sections of life for successfully coping with the complexities and challenges of the 21st century.

Studying for an examination can be one of the most stressful events in a learners life. In recent time, secondary school graduates attending higher institutions, coping with the transition from secondary schools to College and University is very difficult. For stale learners keeping up their grade until graduation is always the main focus. In both instance, studying for examination has been a challenge as some learners may “cram” in order to pass while other study in advance.

However, Salami and Aremu (2016) are of the opinion that through the internationalization of good study habits, both failing and passing learners will raise their grades. Ineffective study habits on the other hand erode self-confidence among adult learners which leads to poor academic performance as well as poor self-esteem (Ekwe 2015) and cheating in examination to pass. Asagwara (2019) described study habits as strategies which learners append for acquiring knowledge, skills, idea and competence. He further observed that some learner who have good study habits do not spend a lot of time studying before they can achieve success and that learners who study very hard without utilizing good habits make little or o progress in their academics.

Onyejiaku (2010) further opined that majority of adult learners who find it difficult to concentrate and ignore distraction while studying lack self-discipline, intrinsic motivation or goal orientation. It is pertinent to note that time management is to be recognized as the control idea of the concepts of study habit. It is therefore against this background that this study has deemed it necessary to investigate the effect of study habit on academic performance of adult learners in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.


1.2    Statement of the Problems    

Perhaps the greatest challenge of teaching the adult learners is to advise teaching methodologies that help al adult learners to learn and understand the subject under discussion. Researcher such as Cernal and Kseria (2015) sustain that all thing being equal, what remain different in a classroom of adult learners is the cultural background of the learners and teachers, class observations and interview with high-performing learner showed that most high and low performing learners have some habits adult learners have some habits in common.

Hence, it is considered important to known what habits adult learners have Baquiran (2011) provide evidence that study habits and study attitudes are both significant variables which determines the academic performance of learners. Yet, it seems that education institution still pay little attention to understanding these factors.

Statistics abound to show that mass failure among adult learners is real and the trend of adult learners academic performance has been on the decline oftentimes, the teachers are blamed for the poor academic performance, some people blame Government for not providing sufficient fund to the school and even when the adult learners are explanation is proffered only in terms of the peer group influence.

Little or no consideration is given to the fact the adult learners study habit can affect his or her academic performance in school. This motivated the researcher to ask “could the study habit adopted by the adult learners affect their academic performance in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area”.


Study Habit and Academic Performance of Adult Learners

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate study habits and academic performance of adult learners in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. Specifically, the main objectives  of this study are to:

(i)      Examine the influence of time allocation to studies on Academic Performance of adult learners in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area

(ii)     Investigate the effect of note taking habit on Academic Performance of adult learners in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.


1.4    Significance of the Study  

The finding of this study will be useful in the following ways:

  • The study is designed toward helping adult learners to improve in their study habits
  • To the teacher, it is believe that this study will help them to provide a conducive study environment for their learners in the school
  • To the counselors, it will help in yielding a good basis for adult learners counseling on self-discipline and the right attitude towards academic work
  • To the policy makers and planners in education, it will furnish them with a sand basis for effective supervision which will take cognizant of the effect of examination malpractice and motivate academic performance of the adult learners.
  • As a data bank, it is envisaged that this research work will serve as a reposting of information for future researchers who may wish to research further into the same topic on related topic

1.5    Research Hypotheses    

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  • There is no significant difference in academic performance of adult learners who adopt time allocation to their studies and those that do not
  • There is no significant difference in academic performance of adult learners who adopt note taking habit and those who do not

1.6    Limitation of the Study

Lack of adequate funding and poor rural roads networks limited the extent of this research work as well as lack of sufficient time due to other academic work of the researcher.

Study Habit and Academic Performance of Adult Learners

1.8    Operational Definition of Terms 

The following were defined as used in the study:

Study Habit: This is the strategies adopted by learners to acquire knowledge, skills ideas and competence in school. It encompassed rime allocation to studies and  note taking as used in the study.

Academic Performance: This is the grade or score of a student obtain in a performance test.

Time Allocation Studies: This is the preparation of personal time table by adult learners to guide them on their daily activities of which study time is included as well as other duties.

Note Taking Habits: This is the act of taking note in the class during lesson presentation by the teacher.

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