TEACHER-STUDENTS RELATIONSHIP AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
By relationship, is meant interaction between individuals which can be expressed as friendship, affection, frequency of meeting, co-operation and open communication (Clement, 2014). As observed by (Zaechuiz (2012) and Fabiyi (2015) relationship can also be seen in activities like self-disclosure that can generate trust and love among people. In other words, relationship between people usually follows a progression from non-intimate communication to deep unreserved self-disclosure.
Schools must provide a climate in which respect and trust are possible (Asunmo, 2019). Confidence in oneself and others can hardly be nurtured when the child lives under a continual barrage of negative admonition. Consequently, Emunemu (2000), Glueck (2002), William, (2005) suggested that students must be taught to be sensitive to one another’s needs and to appreciate without stinging the generally wide differences in social background and life experiences among themselves.
Similarly, considering the nature of students’ academic task performance and the psychological nature of human system, (Farounbi, 2002; Carroll, 2005 and Ilesanmi, 2005) the student needs to nurture and sustain good rapports with their teachers for effective functioning and high productivity in the academic.
Fatona (2001) opined that people’s relationships with others are affected by their self-concept they hold. As a result, if a learner established a good relationship with his instructor, Mebude (2003) holds that such a relationship may aid his self-perception. In other words, the nature of open and friendly communication existing between students and their teachers are reflections of the sort of self-concept they hold.
Solaja (2014) supported teachers having qualities which will make them acceptable to the students. He enumerates these qualities as including: wholesome personality characteristics; leadership qualities and democratic attitude; expressive qualities of kindness, patience, good humour, consideration and sympathy; a sense of justice and fairness in dealing with children, sensitivity to the needs of children and their reactions in different situation, professional insight into the growth pattern of children showing understanding and respect, the ability to establish good social relationship with children.
Durojaye (2000) observed that classroom relationship is to a large extent determined by the kind of relationship operating between the teacher and the students in the classroom. The kind of relationship in the classroom is, therefore, in turn determined by the kind of teacher in the classroom. A teacher who is autocratic, (Bamard, 1999; Yabe, 2002; Oguntade, 2005) creates a stormy and passive emotional climate within and outside the classroom; and those who choose to be laissez-faire are doing nothing more than paying lip-services to the principle of teaching.
Sarumi (1990), in a study established a significant difference between married and single teacher-student relationship while a non-significant difference was established between rural and urban schools teacher-student relationship. However, in a research conducted to ascertain the impact of teacher-students’ relations on academic performance, Ogunniyi (2006) found a significant difference between male and female teacher-student relations. A significant difference also existed between young and old teacher-student relations.
The teacher-student association is very significant for children. Children use more or less 5 to 7 hours a day with a teacher for approximately 6 years. We inquire ourselves what is measured a good teacher. Every one of us has left through instruction, and if lucky had a preferred teacher. A constructive connection among the student and the teacher is complicated to set up, however be able to be establishing for both individuals at either end. The individuality for a helpful relationship can differ to set a knowledge experience friendly and attractive the students to study.
A teacher and student who have the individuality of high-quality infrastructure, esteem in a classroom, and demonstrate attention in schooling from the tip of sight of the teacher and knowledge from a student will set up a optimistic connection in the classroom.
Children have dissimilar strategies for knowledge and achieving their goals. A small number of students in a classroom will take hold of and study rapidly; however at the same time there will be those who have to be continually skilled using different techniques for the student to be capable to appreciate the lesson. Going on the other hand, there are those students who trick about and use school as activity. Instruction then becomes hard, particularly if there is no correct announcement. However, teachers, creating a constructive association with their students, will not unavoidably manage of all the upsetting students.
Teachers play an important role in the trajectory of students throughout the formal schooling experience (Baker, Grant, & Morlock, 2008). Although most research regarding teacher-student relationships investigate the elementary years of schooling, teachers have the unique opportunity to support students’ academic and social development at all levels of schooling (Baker et al., 2008; Bronfenbrenner, 1979; Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998; McCormick, Cappella, O’Connor, & McClowry, in press).
Aligned with attachment theory (Ainsworth, 1982; Bowlby, 1969), positive teacher-student relationships enable students to feel safe and secure in their learning environments and provide scaffolding for important social and academic skills (Baker et al., 2008; O’Connor, Dearing, & Collins, 2011; Silver, Measelle, Armstron, & Essex, 2005). Teachers who support students in the learning environment can positively impact their social and academic outcomes, which are important for the long-term trajectory of school and eventually employment (Baker et al., 2008; O’Connor et al., 2011; Silver et al., 2005).
When teachers form positive bonds with students, classrooms become supportive spaces in which students can engage in academically and socially productive ways (Hamre & Pianta, 2001). Positive teacher-student relationships are classified as having the presence of closeness, warmth, and positivity (Hamre & Pianta, 2001). Students who have positive relationships with their teachers use them as a secure base from which they can explore the classroom and school setting both academically and socially, to take on academic challenges and work on social-emotional development (Hamre & Pianta, 2001). This includes relationships with peers, and developing self-esteem and self-concept (Hamre & Pianta, 2001). Through this secure relationship, students learn about socially appropriate behaviors as well as academic expectations and how to achieve these expectations (Hamre & Pianta, 2001). Students in low-income schools can especially benefit from positive relationships with teachers (Murray & Malmgren, 2005).
Students in high-poverty urban schools may benefit from positive teacher-student relationships even more than students in high-income schools, because of the risks associated with poverty (Murray & Malmgren, 2005). Risk outcomes associated with poverty include high rates of high school dropout, lower rates of college applications, low self-efficacy, and low self-confidence (Murray & Malmgren, 2005). There are several factors that can protect against the negative outcomes often associated with low-income schooling, one of which is a positive and supportive relationship with an adult, most often a teacher (Murray & Malmgren, 2005).
Low-income students who have strong teacher-student relationships have higher academic achievement and have more positive social-emotional adjustment than their peers who do not have a positive relationship with a teacher (Murray & Malmgren, 2005).
There is substantial research on the importance of teacher-student relationships in the early elementary years (Pianta, 1992; Hamre & Pianta 2001). However, little is known about the effects of teacher-student relationships on high school students. Studies show that early teacher-student relationships affect early academic and social outcomes as well as future academic outcomes (Pianta 1992; Hamre & Pianta 2001), but few researchers have looked at the effects of teacher-student relationships in later years of schooling. Researchers who have investigated teacher-student relationships for older students have found that positive teacher-student relationships are associated with positive academic and social outcomes for high school students (Alexander, Entwisle, & Horset, 1997; Cataldi & KewallRamani, 2009).
Teacher-Students Relationship and Academic Performance of Students
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The relationships that teachers develop with their students have an important role in a student’s academic growth. Hallinan (2008) writes “Learning is a process that involves cognitive and social psychological dimensions, and both processes should be considered if academic achievement is to be maximized”
Meyer & Turner (2002) discussed their findings illustrating the importance of students’ and teachers’ emotions during instructional interactions. They determined that “through studying student-teacher interactions, our conceptualization of what constitutes motivation to learn increasingly has involved emotions as essential to learning and teaching”. Their results provide support for further study of the inclusion of interpersonal relationships in the instructional setting and to what degree those relationships affect the students’ learning environment. This research study will therefore explore the impact of teacher-students relationship on effective teaching and learning of Economics in Mkpat Enin Local Area.
1.3 Objectives of Study
The main objective of study was to examine the impact of teacher-students relationship in academic performance of students in Economics in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.
The specific objectives include:
(1) To investigate the impact of teacher’s characteristics on students’ academic performance.
(2) To examine the influence of students’ attitude on students’ learning of Economics?
(2) To find out how student’s motivation influences academic performance of students in the learning of Economics?
Teacher-Students Relationship and Academic Performance of Students
1.4 Research Questions
(1) To what extent does teacher’s characteristics and students’ academic performance?
(2) Does student’s attitude influence academic performance of students?
(3) How does student’s motivation impacts on students learning of Economics?
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this study will provide vital information for teachers, students, parents, and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help learners in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school.
In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quiet a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the teacher-students’ relationship as it affect the academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools. It will also be of help to the future researchers who will embark on studies related to this.
Lawson Peter – Chief Editor in Projectvilla Nigeria. A writer and academic researcher.