Teachers Motivation and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils


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The purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ motivation and academic performance of primary school pupils in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Two research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population of the study comprising of all the primary school pupils in Oruk Anam totaling 3,340: 290 pupils were selected to form a sample size through random sampling technique. Pupils Achievement Score (PAC) was the instrument for the study. Independent t-test was used as statistical analysis to calculate the responses collected from pupils.

The result indicated that teacher remuneration and availability of teaching and learning aids influence pupils’ academic performance in primary schools. Finally, it was recommended that teachers should adopt various motivational strategies so that each child could be motivated to perform creditably in the subject. 


Teachers Motivation and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils




1.1   Background to the study

Motivation is the process through which individuals are driven to increase their action or performance wither by internal (intrinsic) or external (extrinsic) factors. Intrinsic motivation is said to be derived internally in the task itself. It is that which occurs while person is performing an acting in which he takes delight and satisfaction in doing. Intrinsic motivation is seen internal reward that a person can be influenced by both his work (Tella, 2017).

Motivation can be enjoyed after he finishes intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as teacher’s motivation as well as parental motivation. In the context of this study, teacher’s motivation is the extrinsic variable that is not within pupils themselves (intrinsic) that can drive or encourage them to learn and perform better in the examination. 

These could not be construed to mean motivation rather than variables that can help pupils to improve on their performances for instance, Maslow (2017) on their separate theories identified in the present study as those that can influence individuals to perform either positively or negatively. The extent to which these variables can predict or influence public or private primary school pupils is one of the major concern of this study.

It is well documented in the study of Maslow (2017) that motivation plays an important role in influencing pupil’s academic performance. Several researchers Chapman, (2019) have confirmed pupils use different motivation strategies in different learning situations. In general, pupils are found to value both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards when they engage in activities. It is truism that the level in which pupils are motivated either by their parents or teachers are different and they to a very large extent go a long way to influence them in their learning and consequently their performance in examinations.

Adebayo (2019) there is a relationship between the performance of worker and competence as well as his need. For this singular reason, parents have the role and responsibility of motivating their children towards effective learning in school and subsequently toward recording success in their examination. It is not only sending their children to the most expensive school that matters but ensuring that learning needed are provided for them.

A high level of academic performance calls for hard work out of their determination to succeed. Unfortunately, the reverse is observed among most of the present group of pupils who often misuse their precious time watching films, play with cell phones, among others. Without knowing it, this type of pupils prepare for their own setbacks in academic. Some schools of thought believe that teachers have much to do to motivate pupils towards optimal performance in academic.

It has been observed that awarding of prizes for excellent performance makes the beneficiaries feel emotionally disguised which sometimes challenge their contemporaries to also compete for excellent in the subsequent event. Most human being feel happy when praised for successful performance of a task. It serves as a reinforcing of the desired behaviour. According to Okoro (2017) every human being loves to be praised for his achievement. The author further commented that rewards rouse interest in and have monitored their ward’s study attitude with respect to assignment, positive effects in motivating pupils for learning. Most pupils are often interested in having feedback on their performance.            

Experience shows that most pupils who are exposed to rewards in the classroom do not treat subsequent homework given by their teachers with serious attention. Adewuyi (2016) found out that feedback create room for remediate. This implies that if teacher’s performance in the subject remediation which improves academic conduct guidance one oriented continuous assessment in the subject could improve. Parents also have role to play in motivating their wards to learn, these are parents who equipped their children with all the recommended textbooks as well as other school requirement.

Most of such parent’s quipped pupils take interest in academic activities demanded from them because they have access to the needed learning materials; some pupils on the other hand are handicaps and not motivated to participate in academic activities because they lack learning materials.

Denga (2011) maintained that some Nigerian parents hire part-time teachers to teach their children at home. The author commended parent who show interest in the academic progress of their children. Some parents on the other hand are observed not being interested in what happens to their children in the school. Experiences showing that most children, who are conscious of their parent’s interest in their progress in the school, tend to be interested in their performance.  

Teachers Motivation and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils

1.2   Statement of the problem

Most of our primary pupils lack apparent interest in their studies.  Some pupils devote their time to watch films, engaging in on-academic ventures among others. This is worrisome as this attitude seems to affect pupil’s performance in the various school subjects. Situations are observed where teachers do not mind pupil dodging class assignments, non-participation in academic activities. Some teachers pretend as if they have no role to play, to encourage pupil’s interest in their subjects.

The researcher has observed that many primary school pupils dodge continuous assessment; exercise and some even dodge examinations because they lack confidence to write the test and examinations. Some pupils resort to coping assignment from other brilliant pupils to submit to their feeders. It is against this assignment from other brilliant pupils to submit to their feeders. It is against this background that this study is carried out to examine the influence of teacher’s motivation and academic performance of pupils in primary school in Oruk Anam local government area.


1.3    Purpose of the Study

The study aimed at determining the influence of teacher’s motivation and academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area, the objective s are as follows:

  1. To examine the influence of teachers remuneration and the academic performance of pupils in primary school.
  2. To examine the extent to which availability of teaching/learning aids influence the academic performance of pupils in primary school.


1.4   Significance of the Study       

The following of this study shall be of significance in the following areas:

  1. Teachers and parents will benefit from the finding of this study as they will be guided, see the need of using motivational variable to encourage pupils to study and perform well.
  2. School authorities will also find this research useful as they would be guided to see the greater need for the instructional supervision of teachers.
  3. This study will also encourage the teachers to see the need for assessment and remediation as their subjects as such encourage better performance.


1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following research questions were posed to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant influence between teacher remuneration and pupil academic performance in primary school.
  2. There is no significance influence between availability of teaching aids and pupil’s academic performance in primary school.


1.6   Limitation of the Study

The reliability of the findings of the study was limited by the fact that non-standardized instruments were used for data collection. Also, the sample used for the study may not have been large enough for generalization.

Teachers Motivation and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils

1.7   Definition of Terms

Operational definitions of terms used in the study were given below:   

Motivation: This is the process through which individuals are driven to increase their action or performance either by internal or external factors.

Feedback and Remediation: This is used in the study to refer to the teacher’s making correcting and re-teaching pupils on area of weakness in the subject.

Availability: Something being sufficient for use.

Teaching Aids: Those instructional materials used by the teacher to impact on people. 

Learning Aids: They are instructional materials used by pupils in the process of learning. 

Academic Performance: This refers to pupils’ attitude to compete for excellence in their attitude towards participating in class assignment and homework. It is also used to refer to pupil’s interest in learning.

Education: It is defined as the process of acquiring and utilizing knowledge and experience for the growth and development of the individual and the community.      

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