Teachers Professional Characteristics and Students Academic Performance in Business Studies


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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher’s professional characteristics and students’ academic performance in business studies in Calabar South Local Government Area. The three research questions were raised to guide the study and three hypotheses. Survey design was used for the study. Population of study is made of 4,800 students. Two hundred (200) students were randomly selected from the population and were used as sample size. The instruments used for data collection was called teachers’ characteristics and teaching academic performance of students questionnaire.

T-test analysis was use for easy computation of data. Result of the finding indicates that positive relationship exists between teachers characteristics and students academic performance. The study concluded that Professional of the teacher including his cordial relationship with the students and concern for the personal problem greatly influences the students’ readiness to learn business studies. The following recommendations were made to enable the teachers inculcate and hold onto the desirable characteristics, and the achieving should be sincerely professionalized.  


Teachers Professional Characteristics and Students Academic Performance in Business Studies



1.1   Background of the Study

Teaching is as old as human existence on earth. In this process, the teacher occupies a very vital position. Ekanem (2016) opined that he is an individual who influences another to acquire experience using available methodology. The teacher must therefore, see himself as an instrument of effecting immediate change in the behaviour of the learners. In order to enable the teacher fulfill his main function which is causing learning to take place in an individual, number of characteristics are expected of him. This is why there is a continuous emphasis in the professionalization of teaching.

In general terms, Ekanem and Ekanem (2013) noted that as a specialist, the teacher must exhibit certain characteristics which foster the learning process. Such characteristics include concern for the welfare of the learners, commitment to the attainment of educational goals, having a sense of humor and ability to maintain a disciplinary disposition Lassa (2019).

This is important for education administrators because knowing what teacher characteristics influence pupil academic performance will help the school’s administration make adjustments in order to increase pupil academic performance. This does not necessarily mean that all pupils will benefit, but it will help identify teacher characteristics that are correlated with increasing the school’s overall pupils’ academic performance.

Despite the importance of Business Studies in the junior secondary schools, the study of it has been bedeviled with certain challenges which include inappropriate method of teaching, poor learning environment, student’s perception of the subject as difficult, availability of instructional aids, among others (Mutodi and Ngriande, 2014). These hindrances according to researchers like Ekanem, (2014) and Kevin (2006) had led to the poor academic performance of students in school examinations.

Be that as it may, the important role of the teachers in learning is unquestionable. Teachers have a lot of influence on the classroom practice. Teachers should have and apply specific abilities without which their influence may not be reflected for learners to be able to make connection between what is taught in school and its application in problem solving in real life. The teacher has to be effective in their teaching.

Adeogun (2015) opined that the quality of educational system depends on the quality of its teaching staff and that a school without human resources may not be able to achieve the goal and objective of the educational system, Ekanem (2011) also noted that teachers are the major indication and determinate of quality education.

Correspondingly, Okokon (2017) put forward that the importance of teachers’ characteristics in realizing educational goals and objectives in any educational system cannot be overemphasized. Teachers’ characteristics are the instructional behaviours exhibited by the teachers towards goals attainment. These include: teachers’ qualification, teachers’ years of teaching experience and teachers’ communication skills. Successful teachers’ characteristics are those that have been found by researchers to be related to improved achievement of students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor outcomes in education (Udo, 2018). Furthermore, bedrock of an educational system has on a core of devoted, knowledgeable, competent and well-trained professional teachers which must commit themselves to the effective delivery of the lesson contents to the learners (Ekanem, 2011).     

Ademulegun (2011) asserted that there is an established correlation between what teacher knows and what they teach. Thus the ability to teach effectively depends on the teacher’s knowledge and knowledge occurs in a variety of forms. Teachers’ effectiveness is impeded if the teacher is unfamiliar with the body of knowledge taught. The implication of this for teacher is that they must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach.

Usman (2013) asserted that shortage of qualified teachers is responsible for the poor academic performance observable among the learners while Ademulegun (2011) argued that learners taught by more qualified and experienced teachers in terms of knowledge of the subject matter perform better than those taught by less qualified but experienced teachers.

The basis for the above argument is that as students continuously look up to the teachers manifest and possess certain characteristics which would encourage the students to learn from his ideas both within and outside the classroom situation.

Eggen and Kauchak (2011), observed that the teachers’ positive attitude are fundamental to effective teaching. The identified a number of teachers’ attitude that will facilitate a caring and supportive classroom environment; they are enthusiasm, caring, firm, democratic practices to promote students’ responsibility and use of time for lesson effectively.

This was why this study was carried out to determine the influence of teachers’ characteristics on the learning of business studies in Secondary Schools.

Teaching being an activity that has to do with an exhibition of certain characteristics of a person, who is involved in it, makes this subheading necessary. The research refers to characteristics as quality or attributes of a teacher. Maduabun (2012) asserted that one mark of a professional teacher is therefore, the knowledge and application of methods of change, the willingness and ability to change human behaviour. It is worthy to note that there must be a push toward the willingness to change human behaviour. This push comes from professional competence.

Eddie (2011) outlined sympathy, care, patience, orderliness to learn and ability to set good example as the qualities of a teacher outside the professional attributes. Ekanem (2013) added hard worth honesty, justices and fairness, self-confidence, dedication good example and resourcefulness. For the purpose of this, attitude of teachers and teachers experiences are considered. Teaching effectiveness manifest when a teacher exhibits some skills while imparting knowledge to the learners.

A lot of students at the secondary school level of education still lack behind in communication still with others. Some of them could not even show good interactive behaviours with other students found in their classes. The deficiencies see among these products of business studies are attributed to teachers teaching in most cases. It is proper approaches background that this study was undertaken to investigate teachers’ professional characteristics and academic performance of students in business studies in Calabar south Local Government Area.


Teachers Professional Characteristics and Students Academic Performance in Business Studies

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Among the many problems facing the educational system in Nigerian is the poor quality and quantity of professional teachers. A personnel audit carried out by the National Primary Education Commission in (2012) suggested that there was a short fall in the supply of qualified teachers of both the primary and secondary level to the tune of 22% and 8% respectively (Nwideeduh 2013).

The above trend results in recruiting individuals with little or no qualified characteristics into teaching profession. Joshua (2019) and Akiabote (2017) has examined not only on the effectiveness and efficiency of the teachers but also the willingness and readiness of the learners to imbibe the knowledge, skill and precepts taught by such teachers.

Lack of professionalism among most of the teachers had resulted in a display of behaviour that discourages the students from learning under them. These days, most teachers exhibits poor teacher students relationship, leadership, lateness and absenteeism from work. Lack of mastery of the subject matter etc. has been observed by Isyoku (2016), as being the cause of poor academic performance among students such attitude may be held responsible for the readiness of the students to learn under such teachers. Hence, lack of academic discipline among the students.

Based on the above observation, this study carried out to address the question; does the teachers’ characteristic influence the learning of business studies? 


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teachers’ professional characteristics on the learners of business studies, the specific purpose includes:

(1)    Asses the influence of the teachers Professional qualification on the students, willingness to learn business studies

(2)    Analyze the influence of the teachers’ subject matter, mastery on the learning of business studies.

(3)    Examine the influence of the teachers work commitment on the learning of business studies.


1.4   Significance of the Study

This study would be useful particularly to teachers who are in direct contact with the learners. Students look up to the teacher as a model and the teachers’ characteristics have a way of influencing the learners. As such qualities could be acquired through adequate professional training; the study would also be useful to government and other stakeholders in the education sector.

  1. They will find it useful as means of encouraging teacher education to enable the teachers acquire those characteristics to facilities effective teaching and learning.
  2. Teachers: as they will adjust and put on those characters that will positively affect the performance of students.
  3. Serves as a reference material to their researchers in the future and as well show cases the researcher contribution to the development in education in the states as well as the nation at large.
  4. Government: This study will cause government to send educational supervisors to monitor the activities of business studies teachers in secondary schools and ensured that adequate materials are provided and utilized effectively.

Teachers Professional Characteristics and Students Academic Performance in Business Studies

1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions were used to direct this study.

(1)    Does Professional qualification of the teachers affect the academic performance of JS students in Business Studies?

(2)    Does the learning of business studies influenced by the teacher mastery of the subject matter?

(3)    Does teachers’ commitment influence student’s academic performance in Business Studies?


1.6   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  • There is no significant relationship between teacher Professional qualification and students academic performance.
  • There is no significant relationship between teacher mastery of subject and academic performance of students.
  • There is no significant relationship between teachers’ commitment and academic performance of students.


1.7   Delimitation of the Study

This study was meant to survey only the influence of the teachers’ professional characteristics as the effect of learning of business studies in secondary school in Calabar south Local Government Area. The characteristics covered here include the teachers’ Professional, mastery of subject matter and commitment to the teaching of business studies.  

1.8   Limitation of the Study

                The study was faced with the following limitations:

  • Finance: This exerted a great influence to the study at the researcher could hardly get enough money to cover wider area in her local government.
  • Another great limitation of this study was lack of adequate empirical literature to actual put the researcher on a proper focus.
  • Finally other variables that might constitute teachers characteristics were not tested for or controlled. All such limitations might influence the statistical indices as well as generalized of the findings.


1.9   Definition of Term

Teachers characteristics: These refer to the traits, qualities, disposition and Professional identified in the teacher.

Profession: A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards

Learning: This is the process of acquiring the skills, attitudes and knowledge acquires by a learners from the teaching situation.

Business Studies: Is about how individuals and groups of people organize, plan and act to create and develop goods and services to satisfy customers.

Teacher: Is a person who teaches or instructs, especially as a profession instructor.

Teaching: This is the process through which knowledge and skills are impacted to the learners by the teacher. 

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