Teaching Methods and Pre-Primary School Pupils Academic Performance in English Language


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The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of teaching methods and academic performance of pupils’ in pre-primary school in English Language in Essien Udim Local Government Area. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population consisting of all the pupils in pre-primary school in Essien Udim Local Government Area. The sample random sampling technique was used in the study; 120 pupils was selected in the study.

The instrument for data collection include Early Childhood Care Achievement Test (ECCAT) which consists of 10 questions. The resulting data were analyzed using independent t-test. It was concluded that findings, recommendations were suggested, which includes teaching method that does not allow pupils to actively participate in the teaching and learning process like should be suspended. Teachers should make every lesson pupils-centered on other to motivate pupils to perform well.


Teaching Methods and Pre-Primary School Pupils Academic Performance in English Language




1.1    Background to the Study

Teaching begins the process of education. Teaching is a  process of giving instruction to impact facts, skills, knowledge attitudes, interested aptitude by a knowledgeable and experienced individual (Stollberg, 2016). Iqbal (2014) states, education cannot be made effective without effective teaching method. The word method is derived from a Greek expression “metahodos” which means a way (Esu,&Inyang-Abia, 2011). Therefore teaching method is a way of doing the business, the  procedure, orderliness in planning and execution of teaching proper with the appropriate integration of instructional materials to achieve     the objective at classroom level and beyond the classroom level (Stollberg, 2016). While Esu and Inyang-Abia (2014) defined    teaching method as a systematic and clearly defined way of         accomplishing a task.

Eddie(2001) holds that for the objective of learning to be  achieved, the teacher must adopt certain methods which will make      the lesson to be effective. As a method it is  a  supporting  device which a  teacher uses to emphasize his  ideas through  communication and manipulation of  other resources. Selection of appropriate methods and strategies for an instruction depends on the types of lesson, whether practical or theoretical, the competence of the teacher to handle the methods and the nature of instruction itself.   Therefore, appropriate application of teaching methods determine the  effective realization of teaching objectives.

A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used for instruction to be implemented by teachers to achieve the desired learning or memorization by pupils. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learners. For a particular method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be relation with the characteristics of the learners and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about.

Commonly used teaching methods may include class participation, demonstration, discussion play way, activity method, lecture method, collaborative teaching method etc. But in the cause of this study we are going to consider only two teaching methods that help the academic performance of pre-primary school pupils which are demonstration method and play way method.

Ekanem (2012) concluded that teachers should select methods and techniques that are appropriate to the demand of their institution     and to the learning needs. However, this research work is aimed at investigating the teaching methods and pre-primary school pupils  academic   performance in English Language  in Essien Udim  local government area.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

Despite the government and private sectors efforts in the  improvement of our educational standard, advancement in this area has been proven abortive as indicated in pupils’ poor performances in internal and external examinations in primary schools in the state.

This unfortunate situation has been attributed to the teaching methods adopted by teachers during the teaching and learning process in    the classroom. Parents and other concerned individuals have questioned what might have caused the rate of pupils’ poor performances in English language. From the researcher’s observation during the last teaching practice exercise, some teachers do not use appropriate method to teach English Language in our primary schools thus also give rise to the poor performance in primary six examinations.

These problems of poor performances of pupils in English language prompted the researcher to investigate the effect of teaching methods on pupils’ academic performances in English language in Essien Udim Local         Government Area.

Teaching Methods and Pre-Primary School Pupils Academic Performance in English Language 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of demonstration and play way methods of teaching in pre-primary schools and pupils academic performance in English Language in Essien Udim Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  • Find out whether pupils taught with demonstration method perform better than those  taught  with  play way method
  • Investigate the effect of gender difference on pre-primary school pupils academic performance in English Language when taught with demonstration method.


1.4   Significance of the Study

This research work has the following significance:

  • School administration, curriculum planners and the public would find this work useful to them in the area of supervision and recruitment of teaching staff to schools.
  • It will specifically be of immense help to teachers when selecting teaching methods to use and improve the academic performances of pupils in schools.

1.5   Research Question

The following research question were formulated to guide the study

  • To what extent is the academic performance of pupils taught with demonstration method and those taught wit play way method
  • To what extent  is  academic performance of  male and  female pupils taught with  demonstration   


1.6   Research Hypotheses

 The following research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study:

  • There is no significant difference in academic performance of pupils taught using demonstration method and those taught with play way method.
  • There is no significant difference in academic performance of male and female pre-primary school pupils taught with demonstration method.

1.7   Delimitation of the study

      The study was delimited to pre-primary school pupils in Essien Udim Local Government Schools. The study was also delimited conceptually to investigate pupils who study  English  Language  in  nursery/primary school level.

Teaching Methods and Pre-Primary School Pupils Academic Performance in English Language 

1.8   Limitation of the Study

   When this research was conducted, the researcher faced challenges due to absence of relevant sources for review of related literature. It was difficult to get alternative checklist to determine strategies used in teaching English language in nursery/primary schools.  Financial constraints and lack of research materials was also a limitation.


1.9   Operational Definition of Terms

        The following terms are defined in the way they have been applied to the study:

  • Teaching Method: it comprises the principle and methods used for instruction implementation by the teacher to achieve the desired learning in pupils.
  • Academic Performance: this refers to level of pupils’ achievement in the course of study.
  • Demonstration method: is a teaching method used with both large and small group. Its also used in teaching learners how to perform manipulative operations.
  • Play way method: is an inductive method of teaching where teaching occurs gruadually with fun and frolic which also nourishes the language proficiency effortlessly
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