Teaching Methods and Students Academic Performance in Biology


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This study was aimed at investigating teaching methods and student’s academic performance in biology in Etinan local government area. In order to carry out the study two hypotheses were formulated. A question experimental research design was adopted in carrying out the study. The sample size of the study consisted of one hundred and twenty students in which 30 students were selected, from four schools used in the area of the study.

A random sampling technique was used in the selection of the four schools in the study. A twenty one items biology achievement test (BAT) was used to elicit information from the students after exposing them to the two teaching methods namely: demonstration method and lecture method. The result revealed that students exposed to demonstration method performed better than those taught with lecture method. Also, female student performed better than male students when demonstration method was used.  Based on the findings, it was recommended that student in secondary schools should be taught using demonstration method in biology.


Teaching Methods and Students Academic Performance in Biology



1.1  Background of the study

Teaching begins the process of education. Teaching is a process of giving instruction to impact facts, skills, knowledge attitudes, interested aptitude by a knowledgeable and inexperienced individual (Stollberg, 2016).

The word method is derived from a Greek expression” metahodos” which means a way (Esu and Inyang-Abia 2011). Therefore teaching method is a way of doing the business, the procedure, orderliness in planning and execution of teaching proper with the appropriate integration of instructional materials to achieve the objective at classroom level and beyond the classroom level (Stollberg, 2016). While Esu and Inyang-Abia (2014) defined teaching method as a systematic and clearly defined way of accomplishing a task.

Eddie(2011), holds that for the objective  of learning to be achieved ,the teacher must adopt certain methods which will make  the lesson to be effective. As a method it is  a  supporting  device which a  teacher uses to emphasize his  ideas through  communication and manipulation of  other resources. Selection of appropriate methods and strategies for an instruction depends on the types of lesson, whether practical or theoretical, the competence of the teacher to handle the methods and the nature of instruction itself. Therefore, appropriate application of teaching methods determines the effective realization of teaching objectives.

Ekanem (2012), concluded that teachers should select methods and techniques that are appropriate to the demand of their institution and to the learning needs. However, this research work is aimed at investigating the teaching methods and student academic performance in biology in Etinan local government area.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

Despite the government and private sectors efforts in the improvement of our educational standard, advancement in this area has been proven abortive as indicated in students’ poor performances in internal and external examinations in secondary schools in the state.

This unfortunate situation has been attributed to the teaching methods adopted by teachers during the teaching learning process in the classroom. Parents and other concerned individuals have questioned what might have caused the rate of students’ poor performances in biology.

These problems of poor performances of students in Biology prompted the researcher to investigate the effect of teaching methods on students academic performances in biology in Etinan Local Government Area.


1.3  Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to examine teaching methods and students academic performance in biology in Etinan Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought:

  1. find out whether students taught with lecture method perform better than those taught with demonstration method.
  2. investigate the effect of gender differences on student academic performance in biology when taught with demonstration method.

Teaching Methods and Students Academic Performance in Biology

1.4  Significance of the Study

       This research work has the following significance:

  1. The findings enlighten the teachers on the right teaching method to be used in a teaching-learning situation.
  2. School administration, curriculum planners and the public would find this work useful to them in the area of supervision and recruitment of teaching staff to schools.
  3. It will specifically be of immense help to teachers when selecting teaching methods to use and improve the academic performances of students in schools.


1.5 Research Hypotheses

         The following research hypotheses   were postulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in academic performance of biology students taught using lecture method and those taught with demonstration method.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic performance of male and female biology students taught with demonstration method.


1.6   Limitation of Study

The research is carried out in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.  This investigation covers some selected secondary schools in the study area. Students of senior secondary two (2) were used as respondents. This investigation would have covered other areas but was impeded by finance, poor road network of the community to be covered and time allotted for the completion.

This study is limited to demonstration and lecture method as teaching methods and their effect on students’ academic performance in biology.

Teaching Methods and Students Academic Performance in Biology

1.7   Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined in the way they have been applied to the study:

Teaching Method: it comprises the principle and methods used for instruction to implement by teacher to achieve the desired learning in students.

Academic Performance: this refers to level of students’ achievement in the course study.

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