Teaching Resources and Student Achievement in Home Economics in Secondary Schools


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1.1    Background to the Study

Many countries all over the world recognize education as a veritable instrument for development. This is so because the enlightened minds are able to perceive situation in their time perspectives and attend to them promptly. The Advance Learners’ Oxford Dictionary 6th edition describes education as a kind of intellectual and moral training given to an individual for the development of the individual of the society to which he/she belongs.

Nigeria National Policy on Education (2004) status that the national philosophy of education included among others the training of the mind for the understanding of the world around us and the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competences as equipment to the individual to live and contributes to the development of the society.

To achieve these laudable objectives of education in Nigeria schools are built to provide skills and knowledge in various spheres of life. This requires that the schools are adequately equipped with resources that would promote effective teaching and learning. These include teacher and facilities.

Home Economics as a subject, is taught in most secondary schools in Nigeria to provide skills that will sustain self employment and contribute meaningfully to the hospitality needs of the society according to   Wikipedia (2013) Home Economics refers to cooking and other aspects of household management especially as taught, at school” as activity based subject, it require effective use to teaching resources such as books laboratory equipment, and other instructional materials including C.D. Rom projectors, posters etc Inyang-Abia (2011) and Awosika (2016), in their studies portended that the use of teaching resources enhances comprehension of the lesson as it change abstract concepts to trace life situation.

However in spite of the importance of Home Economics to the development of the society many secondary schools in Etinan do not have resources that are necessary for effective teaching and learning of this subject. This study therefore seeks to establish the impact of teaching resources and students’ achievement in Home Economics in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area with a view to making recommendations base on research finding on the issue.

Teaching Resources and Student Achievement in Home Economics in Secondary Schools

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Over the years the researcher observed that there was low enrollment of students particularly in the Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education to study Home Economics or related fields. Media reports also revealed that many of these students could not gain admission into tertiary institutions to study this course because of their poor performances particularly in examinations (SSCE) if this situation is allowed to continue the researcher is afraid it may result to death of workforce in this field particularly in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State in particular.

The researcher therefore change few area to find out whether resources for teaching this subject in secondary schools are available, are sufficiently utilized by both the teachers and students of this subject or whether poor status of these resources could contribute ton achievement in the area.

Findings on this issue will help the researcher to make recommendations which if religiously implemented will serve as a panacea for this problems.


1.3    Purpose of the Study

The general objective of this study is to investigate into teaching resources and student achievement in Home Economics in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State

 Specifically the Study seeks to

  1. Find out how availability of instructional materials influences students’ achievement in Home Economics.
  2. Examine the influences of utilization of instructional materials on student’s achievement in Home Economics

Teaching Resources and Student Achievement in Home Economics in Secondary Schools

1.4    Significance of the Study

Research finding on the issue will

  1. Serve as a reference manual for future researchers on related topics
  2. Guide the teachers of Home Economics on the use of instructional facilities in the teaching of the subject.
  3. Also enlighten students on the importance instructional materials in the learning of Home Economics
  4. Help Government school proprietors and related agencies especially education administrators when making policy statements concerning the supply of facilities to secondary schools.


1.5    Research Questions

In order to direct the study, it was imperative to raise the following questions 

  1. How does availability of instructional materials influence students’ achievement in Home Economics?
  2. What is the influence of utilization of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in Home Economics?

1.6    Research Hypotheses

Two null hypotheses were postulated to guide the study as follows

  1. There is no significant difference in academic achievement in Home Economics between students taught in schools with adequate instructional materials and those in schools where instructional materials were inadequate
  2. There is no significant difference academic achievement in Home Economics between students taught using instructional facilities and those taught without the use of instructional facilities.

Teaching Resources and Student Achievement in Home Economics in Secondary Schools

1.7    Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study was restricted to an investigation into teaching resource and students achievement in Home Economics.

The study was also limited to secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State only. Hence, findings on the issue was not generalized as it remained valid only to in Etinan Local Government Area where the research was conducted.


1.8    Limitation of the Study

In the course of the investigation the researcher was confronted by certain problems which posed significant hindrances to success of the exercise. Prominent among these were in the form of financial constraint time constraint and rock of co-operation on the part of authorities of some of the secondary schools in the area to allow the researcher access to assess the status of Home Economics facilities and the quality of other instructional the researcher particularly was faced with financial difficulties a there was no external financial assistance to support the project but depended solely on the financial contribution of her parents which was scarcely sufficient for a project of this magnitude in terms of money to procure an d process materials required for the exercise.

Secondly, one semester time frame allocated by the College Authority for the completion and submission of this report was hardly sufficient for a wider coverage on the issue hence come of the issue discovered in the investigation were ignored to save time particularly since they did not have direct bearing on the issue.


1.9    Operational Definition of Terms

The following technical terms which could not be avoided when explaining key concepts and basic ideas are hereby define so that any reader may easily comprehend materials presented in the report without having to consult a dictionary.

  1. Teaching Resources: This refers to anything used by teachers and trainers to develop into their own materials to use when delivering a lesson such as book journals, magazines and equipment.
  1. Academic Achievement: Academic achievement or performance is the outcome of Education the extent to which a student either succeeds or fails in academic activities.
  1. Teaching: Teaching as a profession or process refers to impartation of knowledge or skill to someone on how to do something.
  1. Learning; This refers to the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience or by being taught.
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