THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 2 KILO VOLT AMPERE (KVA) INVERTER
A RESEARCH PROJECT
THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
MAURID POLYTECHNIC, MBIASO, NSIT IBOM L.G.A.
AKWA IBOM STATE
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Modern man has been so used to electricity that he cannot do without it; these projects was to see how we can convert a source of power (DC) to another source (AC) without really generating it from an AC source because of fluctuation of power supply, by power authorities in Nigeria. The inverter has been carefully researched and constructed to cope with uncertainty and provide a source at the optimal level whenever power failure occurs. This project reviews the conformability of uninterrupted power supply through the use of inverter. An inverter is a system that converts a direct current to alternating current.
However, inverter is of different categories base on power rating such as 1KVA, 1.SKVA, 2KVA, 5KVA etc. Moreover, since the invention of inverter, some problems associated with alternating power supply had been drastically reduced, meanwhile the problems such as noise, production of fumes, cost of procurement of oil, few and maintenance of plant has been reduced. Due to the erratic power supply has to be incorporated to supplement the supply of electricity which one of such form of power is inverter.
1.1 Background of the study
The quest to convert D.C power to run some essential appliance result due to erecters power supply being experience. Between the 19th century to mid 20th century D.C to AC power conversion was accomplished using rotary converters or motor generator set (M-G set). In early 20th century, vacuum tubes and gas filled tubes began to be used as switches in inverter circuit.
In contrast the early A.C to D.C converter used an induction or synchronous A.C motor directly connected to a generator (dynomo) so that the generator’s commentator reverses of connection at exactly the right moments to produce D.C. Power disturbances occurrence are on increase resulting to high voltage spikes and momentary voltage drops. This often affects the performance of sensitive electrical electronic equipments and apparition.
Unincessant supply of electric power can not be over emphasized in Nigeria and, this has become the order of the day and many Nigerians now presume power outages as a normal routine. There are factor responsible for this ugly situation such as natural disasters, vandalism, maintainability, sustainability, inadequacy and lack of vision by the political leaders to incest adequately in the power sector and absence of replacement policy resulting in absolute abandonment of electrical equipment or project, unsustainable human capacity and inadequate and remuneration system to motivate human resources term to perform well on their course.
The progress made some decades ago in developing alternate source of energy has proved that independent power systems are not only possible but as well practical. A wide variety of generating equipment is now available to allow individuals take advantage of any preferred renewable resources of energy. Most of these systems produce only direct current (DC) and at low voltage.
However, it is well known that alternating current (AC) is the greatest and most useful form of current being generated by the power grid due to its advantages over direct current. Thus, most of the appliances and equipment are built using AC input source which is generated by most alternative source.
Therefore, there arise the need for converting direct current (DC) which is generated by most alternative source (AC)which is and by home appliances as RECTIFICATION.
1.2 Objective of the Project
The purpose of the project is to design and construct a circuit that will take a 12v DC input from battery and produce a 200VA (AC) output at 200V-22oV, 50Hz with under voltage and over voltage protection. The study intends:
- to design an electrical system that converts D.C power to drive various appliances used in the laboratories theatres, rural areas
- to have source of generating electricity that have no negative effect on the environment (i.e no greenhouse effect)
- to provide an exposition to the HND students to simple electrical design, analysis and building of circuits.
- to provide a noiseless and weightless, compared to standard generators, source of electricity generation.
- the study will also serve has a means of impacting practical knowledge and skills to student, lecturers and others who may which to acquaint themselves with the principle of operation of an inverters system.
1.3 Significance of the study
This project is significant in the following ways
- This system or device can power essential leads
- These device comes up very fast and generate little or no noise unlike generators
- It serves ass a backup because it is the best system due to absence of supply from power supply utilities in the country.
- The benefit of these systems is even in the area with contact power supply; power outage due to natural cause and fault are usually unannounced.
1.4 Statement of the problem
At the end of this research project, the following question should have be answered:
- Can a2kva inverter reduce the cost popular generator?
- Will a 2kva inverter provides a backup power?
- Can a2kva inverter, powered by 220v A.C input change to D.C source to charge a 12v battery and charge it back to AC source with a reliable power supply 2000VA output to power standard house/offices?
- Can a 2kva inverter reduce rate of noise pollution, air pollution cause by alternating generators?
1.5 The Scope of Study
The scope of this study is to design and construct of an inverter system with an output power rating of 2KVA, maximum output of 50Hz from a 12v dc input. A few most widely used application of inverter include running of computers, microwaves and electricity power tools etc.
The scope of this project shows how voltage D.C power supply is use to energized an inverter circuit. It also shows how low A.C voltage obtains from the oscillator output is being amplified and step up to a retired output voltage.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
In spite of the construction of an inverter and its noiseless and pollution tree nature unlike other source of the generating electricity. There is a need of charging and recharging the battery from time to time.
The inability of the circuit to provide a pure sine wave output gives room for further improvement. This because it is quit expensive to design a pure wave inverter circuit.
Again, lack of financial assistance incapacitated the project to achieve it’s a curacy and reliability as well its appearance (packaging).
1.7 Definition of terms
Component: it is a manufactured object that is part of a large device.
Diode: these are electronic component that is used to convert A.C to D.C.
Resistor: a resistor is a passive device that is used in electronic circuit to block A.C and D.C source. It is mostly used as circuit limiting devices.
Switch: a switch is a device to turn electronic current on and off direct its flow.
Transformer: A transformer is a static electronic device that transfers electronic energy between two or more circuit.
Relay: a relay is an electronically operated switch.
Capacitor: an electronic capable of storing an electronic charge.
Mosfet: is a field effect transistor which can operate in both depletion mode and enhancement mode.
Transistor: a semi-conductor device used to amplify and switch electronic power.
Battery: is an electrical device that supplies electric power to electrical load.
Lawson Peter – Chief Editor in Projectvilla Nigeria. A writer and academic researcher.