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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of audio visual facilities as instructional material in the academic performance of students in Integrated Science in Ogba Egbema Ndoni local Government area of Rivers State and the population consists of all the integrated science students in junior secondary school in the study area. The total population was one thousand four hundred and three (1403) students. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. The study employed quasi-experimental research work. The sample size for this study was one hundred (100) integrated science students.

The instrument used in gathering the needed data for the study was the researcher’s made questionnaire called” Audio-visual Facilities and academic performance questionnaire (AVFAPQ). Data obtained was analyzed using independent t-test statistical method. The findings revealed that the use of audio-visual facilities significantly affect the teaching of integrated science in secondary schools in Ogba Egbema Ndoni local government area. Based on the result of the findings, it was recommended among others that teachers should use audio-visual facilities in the teaching and learning of integrated science as this will help to arouse students’ interest towards the learning of the integrated science.


The effect of audio visual facilities as instructional materials in the academic performance of students in integrated science




1.1  Background to the Study

The nature of the world in which today’s students will live their adult lives cannot be based on prediction, but it is likely to be characterized by an increasingly fast pace of change. We are already experiencing the powerful impact of global interdependence and competition, allied to the transformative effects of sciences on all our lives.

Duttley, (2012) had stated that if positive result must be realized in the teaching and learning of science, teachers may have no other choice than to use among other things, audio visuals resources for effective teaching and learning. In the classroom, three elements stand out which are; the teacher, the learner and the instructional materials. These elements interact among themselves using appropriate methods to convey the content (lesson) which constitute the aim of education which will be evaluated. The interactions can be influenced by so many factors including the elements themselves (Obot, 2016).

The power of audiovisual instructional material lies in the fact that it is multi-faceted, for the fact that it stimulates and appeals to senses of the learners. Audio-visual instructional materials in teaching are those image and sound in addition to textual information. Audio visual instructional material add life to learning experiences, as images and animations make words easier to comprehend and remember. It is of importance to note that the basic aim of education must be to lead students towards self-learning and life-long learning and this aim can be achieved through the use of audio-visual instructional material as it improves the learning capacities of individual students i.e. learning experience that is worth memorable (Singh, Sharma, Upadhya, 2012).

Despite the potential benefits and the increased focus on science education, implementation of new instructional strategy faces several challenges. Often, poor performance is blamed on students because of their low performance; other factors such as teachers also play a significant role during the teaching and learning process as they influence students’ academic performance towards the study of science, (Ashish, 2013).Thus, more interactive and engaging environments where enthusiastic teachers facilitate and do not bear too much on students’ constructive activities could enable students to feel free, while they take responsibilities for their actions, and learn to construct their own informed knowledge. Presently, teachers, researchers and students have realized the value of audio/visual resources, not as a separate instructional resource, or a teaching gadget, but as an effective, vital instructional medium, providing for the presentation of knowledge through seeing and learning experience.

Nwike & Anene (2013) supported this statement with their findings that reviewed that there is significant effect of treatment with (audio visual aids) on students’ achievement in sciences. Jonah, (2013) supported this view, she reported that there is statistically significant difference in the academic performance of students when they are taught with audio visual aids than those taught without them. This finding was also supported by Dale in Carton, (2015) that each instructional material provides different learning experiences and that one instructional material may provide more learning experiences than another instructional material, for example real audio-victuals provide more learning experiences as students can see and touch.

Students are not that attentive, motivated and interested in classroom situation when they are compelled to that classroom session that is in function without the use of audio-visual (Sampath, Pannneerselvam & Santhan, 2013). Conceptualizing is clearer and concrete as the use of audio-visual appeals, activates and utilizes the five senses of individual student i.e. see, hear and touch. According to Anzaku, (2011) the term audio-visual resource is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language. Audio-visuals are tool used to facilitate the learning experience of the individual and to make it more realistic and dynamic (Kinder, 2012).

Teachers of science need to be up to date regarding the best practices as obtainable in the developed countries. The resources for effective teaching and learning of science are a necessity to the development of science in Nigeria. Several challenges arise from learning of science in Nigeria. Students are faced with challenges which includes but not limited to; teachers’ incompetence in the delivery of the subject matter, outdated laboratories, obsolete textbooks, unavailability of instructional materials, unrealistic methods of teaching, lack of requisite mathematical background for effective calculation and manipulations, attitudinal decay in science as a result of lack of mass and real representation of the subject matter among others (Badmus, Akanmu & Akanbi, 2015).

However, the present situation calls for comprehensive change in almost every level of education so that practical and dynamic approach can be given to existing and new field of education. The crux of this modern education is to awaken the hidden curiosity and interest of the learner, nourishing his behaviours, attitudes and believes in order to develop basic and essential skills of lifelong learning and ability to think critically and to judge himself and others in a more beneficial manner. Audio-visual materials are instructional materials which have both sound and visual components at the same time (Prada, 2015).

The use of audio-visual aids is preferred as they are considered as 80% of the whole teaching and learning (Jadal, 2013). They keep the individual learner focus on what is being taught by the teacher in the classroom session.

Audio-visual aids make a lesson or a lecture more interesting and a memorable experience not only for students but for teachers as well. They play a vibrant role in focusing the attention of individual student towards the teacher or the topic. Human beings have five senses which are the doorway for effective learning especially seeing, hearing and touching which bring maximum knowledge for the individual. Jerome Brune a Psychologist at New York university advocates, research has show that people remember 100% of what they hear, 20% of what they read and 80% of what they see and do (Lester, 2012).

Indeed, audio-visual aids are most effective tools for developing flawless communication and interaction between students and contents as well as students and teachers. These aids not only help to save the time of teacher but also help in developing and arousing curiosity, creativity and motivation. They emphasize on the comprehension of knowledge and concept as well as keep working on developing sound foundations for higher and further studies, especially in Biology.

Permanent learning according to Njoku ((2014) is the goal of education in that the learners should be able to retain what is taught audio-visual facilities make learning more permanent since they appeal to more than one sense.

Ode and Omokaro (2012) revealed that learners retain most of what they hear, see and feel than what they merely hear. This concept bears credence to the old Chinese adage which says ‘what I hear I forget what, what I see I remember and what I I know Arnett (2010, as cited in Claiborne and Drewery, 2013). A visual instruction encourages the use of audio-visual facilities to make abstract ideas more concrete to the learners.

Therefore, the teacher’s duty is to make learning live, not just something to remember but part of living experience. This can be done effectively by employing the use of audio-visual facilities in teaching and learning of integrated science as a mean of imparting knowledge to learners. Educators have come to realize that the most effective teaching and learning take place when an individual has direct experience with the subject under study, in order word, learners learn best by doing.

According to Orji (2011), science education in Nigeria was planned without emphasizing the need for using the right instructional strategies which will be more effective in teaching and learning of the subject. As a result of the identified problem, the attention of many science teachers has continued to be directed towards the search for an alternative and more appropriate method for science instructional resources.

Much research effort has been expended on other teaching instructional resources, but audio-visuals still have much to be covered in teaching sciences in Nigeria secondary schools. It was on the basis of the above observation that the study was carried out to determine the effect of audio-visual facilities as instructional materials in the academic performance of students in integrated science in Ogba Egbema Ndoni Local Government Area.


The Impact of audio visual facilities as instructional materials in the academic performance of students in integrated science

1.2  Statement of the Problem

As a result of advancement and development of modern technology varieties instructional materials can be used to make learning more vivid and effective. This means that students can perform better whenever they are taught with these instructional materials particularly audio-visual facilities as their comprehension and demonstration and co-operation are expected to enhance tremendously in teaching-learning process. Unfortunately, most of the integrated science teachers neglect the use of audio-visual facilities in teaching the subject probably, due to non-availability of the materials or lack of techniques for using them.

Mavida (2012) reiterated that the utilization of instructional materials such as audio-visual learning aids make students to participate effectively in the teaching and learning process, hence ending with quality education that enable them to suit in the current society in relation to technological changes.

Generally, it is agreed that audio-visual learning aids assist in the learning process and students find it easy to grasp the materials in classroom when audio-visual learning aids are used. The use or non-use of learning aids was not only problem in public secondary schools in Ogba Egbema Ndoni Local Government Area; material shortages, motivational inadequacy and poor learning environment were some of the problems.

However, the relationship between usage and non-usage of audio-visual learning aids and the teaching of Integrated science in schools have had not so far been established, despite other problems. It is against this backdrop that this study is aimed at finding out effect of application of audio-visual facilities in the academic performance of students in integrated science in secondary schools in Ogba Egbema Ndoni Local Government Area.

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