The Influence of Learning Resources Utilization on Academic Achievement of Biology Students


Get complete material @80 percent discount only TODAY. Pay ₦2,400 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 07068634102



This study investigated learning resources utilization and academic achievement of biology students in Ukanafun Local Government Area. The population of the study consisted of all senior secondary two (SS2) students offering Biology in all the public secondary schools in the study area. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly sampled from four selected secondary schools. Survey design was used in the study. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using mean percentage.

Findings revealed that Biology laboratories are well equipped with models, apparatus and equipments. The study further revealed that the available resources are not often utilized in every teaching and learning process. Based on this, it was therefore recommended that teachers should always make use of learning resources for effective teaching and learning of Biology among others.


The Influence of Learning Resources Utilization on Academic Achievement of Biology Students



1.1   Background to the Study

It is beyond dispute that using learning resources effectively helps students succeed in their academic progress. At secondary schools in Nigeria, biology instruction must be carefully managed. At both the basic and secondary levels of our educational system, the materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points are unquestionably a crucial interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners.

The things that help teachers make their lessons clear to students are known as learning resources. They are also employed to impart knowledge and concepts to students (Idaduola, 2011). Visual and audiovisual learning resources are available in the form of recorder, posters, charts, radio, television, and computers, among other things. The use of resources in biology instruction necessitates a procedure that will result in or lead to a profitable and effective teaching and learning experience as well as inspire and stimulate students’ senses. Resource utilization is the practice of managing and organizing resources effectively.

Biology is an important subject that must be credited by science students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution. The importance of technically of this subject makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used to teach the learners. This fact is supported by Macaulay (2010) who asserts the visual aids which make lesson come alive and help students to learn better. Poor academic achievement in Biology could be tribute to many factors among which teachers strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of Biology concept might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials.

The teaching of Biology without this resource materials may certainly result in poor academic achievements. Franzer, Okebukola & Jedge (2012) stressed that professionally qualified science teachers no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipments and materials necessary for him/her to translate his competence into reality. Bassey (2011) opined that science is resource intensive and a period of Biology recession it may be very difficult to find some laboratory equipment for the teaching of Biology in school adequately.

Research such as Obioha (2016) & Ogunlaye (2012) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching science subject in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good condition. There is then need for improvisation. Adebimpe (2017) & Daramola (2018) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teachers, such skills only realizable through well phone training programme improvisation.

Omosewo (2018) & Akinsola (2010) considered the human factors as the teachers professional commitment, creativity, mechanically, skills, initiative and resourcefulness. They found that many Nigeria science teachers were aware of the possible improvisation. They also noted that very few teachers practice improvisation while majority depends on imported equipments and claim that improvisation is time consuming and fund depleting. The authors also noted that students too, possessed little or no interest  in improvisation.

The objective of any educational process determine the contents, methods and materials needed for achieving such objective. The material used for enhancing instructional effectiveness are the aspect of media employed for achieving the instructional objective. Bassey (2012) described instructional media as system component that may be used as a part of instructional process which use to disseminate information, messages and ideas or which make possible communication in teaching learning process effectively.

Agun (2018) asserted that one of the primary roles of a teacher in instructional situations is that of a communicator. A teacher elicits relevant responses from his audience after his teaching to see how progressive or fruitful the teaching is. In this case, the audience is of course the learners. The teacher tries in his teaching to effect some changes in the behavior of the learners by presenting some facts and information following the teaching rules and procedures which one of them is the use of learning resources to teach. The teacher also directs and involves the learners actively and meaningfully through their participation in the lesson and also guides them so as to be sure that there is an effective transfer of knowledge.

Olagunju (2019) observed that there are varieties of resources which the science teacher can use to enrich his or her teaching. Among them are; Microscopes, wind vane, rain gauge, metre rules, models, charts, preserved specimens of plants and animals, culturing equipments and a lot more.  In the same way, the learner may use or be required to use these resources in order that they may successfully or maximally achieve the objectives of the teacher’s instruction. Be it as it may, learning resources stands out as the most important device which both the teachers and learners can use to enhance effective teaching and learning.

Abia (2018) observe that in the teaching and learning process, the availability and the utilization of instructional materials (learning resources) have become very necessary in the promotion of meaningful teaching.

Despite the importance of learning resources in the teaching of Biology, it seems that teachers make ineffective use of them as evidenced by the poor academic performance of students in Biology in public examinations. For instance, Soyibi (2019) asserts that since in 1990s, Nigerian candidates performance at the senior secondary certificate examinations have remained consistently poor with Biology having the highest enrolment and the poorest results annually in a recent study.

This trend of poor academic performance creates doubts as to whether the goal of equipping students to live effectively is in consonance with the national policy on education (2014). It is against this background that, this study attempt to examine learning resources utilization and academic achievement of biology students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.


The Influence of Learning Resources Utilization on Academic Achievement of Biology Students

1.2   Statement of Problem

The essential goal of teaching is to transfer knowledge, abilities, and attitudes from the teacher to the students. Due to the lack of or inefficient use of learning resources, biology as a subject in senior secondary schools appears to be plagued by the issue of poor academic performance in public examinations. Studies have shown that poor performance in Biology is as a result of unavailability of adequate learning resources, lack of proper usage of learning resources by the teachers, lack of well trained teachers, lack of incentive to the teachers and of course, lack of student interest in learning.

However, Scholars like Mutibi & Matora (2014) have emphasized the impact of instructional material use on teaching and learning. According to them, 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we discuss with others, and up to 80% of what we actually experience or do is what we learn and retain. In light of this, the researcher attempts to investigate biology students’ use of learning tools and academic accomplishment in Ukanafun Local Government Area.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine learning resources utilization and academic achievement of biology students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

        Specifically the study seeks to:

  1. Examine if learning resources such as microscope, wind vanes, rain gauge, metre rules, models, charts , preserved specimens of plants and animals, culturing equipments and many others are available in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
  2. Examine if the available learning resources in Biology are effectively utilized.


1.4   Research Questions:

The following questions where formulated to guide the study:

  1. Are models, equipments, reagents and chemicals available in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area for Biology teaching?
  2. To what extent are the available learning resources utilized for the effective teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools?

The Influence of Learning Resources Utilization on Academic Achievement of Biology Students

1.5   Significance of the study

        Through this survey, Educational planners will see the need of supplying learning resources for Biology teaching in schools where they are not available to enable the students learn well.

        It will help the government officials to see the need of proper funding of the teachers and also sending them on further training (i.e. seminars and workshop) so that they may be able to play their roles effectively.

        Government will benefit from this study because it will help them in making policies concerning the effective utilization and management of learning resources in schools.

        This study will also serve as a reference point to other researchers on the same topic.


1.6   Limitation of the Study

        This research was limited by a number of factors, hence there were some limitations encountered.

  1. Time: the period given for the completion of this survey was not enough for a wider in depth research situation.
  2. Finance: the financial constraint exerted a lot of influence on the study and the researcher hardly had enough money to allow for the coverage of wider area.


1.7   Delimitation

The study is delimited to only public secondary schools Biology students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

1.8   Definitions of Terms

The following definitions are made as they are approved in the study.

Learning Resources: There are wide range of equipment and materials at the disposal of the school which when assessed by learners help in fostering, meaningful learning, retention of concepts and effective explanation, demonstration, illustration of the concept.

Resources Utilization: This is the process whereby the available learning materials are being put to use.

Biology:  This refers to the study of life.

Student achievement: This refers to scores obtained by students in Biology Test Examination as reflected on their continuous Assessment record.

Open chat
Hello! What's your project topic?