Use of Sport Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools

USE OF SPORT EQUIPMENT AND EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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ABSTRACT

This research on “Use of Sport Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools” was conducted in Uyo Local Government Area. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population for the study was 1,102 Physical/Health Education students of Junior Secondary Two (JSS 2) class. A sample size of one hundred and twenty (120) students were selected from four (4) secondary schools in the study area and used for the research. A quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study; Physical and Health Education Achievement Test was used as the instrument for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation.

The findings showed that the use of sports equipment such as soccer and javelin influences effective teaching of Physical and Health Education; also that, school location does not influence effective teaching of Physical and Health Education when adequate sports equipment are used. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the government should make provision for the necessary sports equipment and that adequate supervision should be made on the way the available sports equipment are used by teachers in secondary schools in the state.     

 

Use of Sport Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the Study

Schools are established for the purpose of teaching and learning; as such, it is pertinent that the teachers and learners be properly accommodated and equipped to facilitate the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process. Several attempts have been made by educationists and psychologists over the years to find ways of enhancing educational outcome of learners as well as input of teachers. Many studies have shown that among other things, school facilities enhance teaching in sciences, Physical and Health Education inclusive.

Eneh and Nkang (2011) in postulation of the theory of cognitive development, showed that learners function at the operational stage of mental development, and one of the characteristics of students at this stage of development is that they hardly remember what they learn except the learning experiences are made to be in concrete form; and one way of making learning experiences concrete is to apply the appropriate school facilities and equipment in the teaching process.

Generally, the aim of teaching is to develop the learners’ cognitive, affective, and psychomotor abilities (Ekanem, 2016). In a situation whereby a teacher always presents a “sermon” lesson to the learners without application of practical, the learners’ cognitive abilities are developed, while the affective and psychomotor abilities suffer flaws.

Physical and Health Education which refers to the study and appreciation of the art and science of human movement, involves the execution of various sports activities in which the learners are actively involved in role playing such as players, referees, etc. (Hardman, 2012). The activities are organized and administered under the auspices of the school and supervised by the teachers. These sports are undertaken with the aim of building a sound mind in a healthy body (Ojeme, 2012). Specifically, this is to meet the physical, emotional, social, physiological, and intellectual needs of the learners. This view is equally buttressed by Amuchie (2013), when he asserted that institutional sports is aimed at meeting health needs and the promotion of optimum development of learners.

Consequent upon the activity-based design of the Physical and Health Education curriculum, the subject cannot be taught effectively without the “doing” aspect which involves the use of various sports equipment in relation to each topic. To acquire the relevant skills and knowledge in the subject, there is need for practicalization of the concepts in real or simulated situations. The practical, therefore requires the use of the right tools, in the right way, and at the right time, based on universally accepted standards (Akinbobola, 2015). Physical and Health Education being a practical subject would be more interesting and better understood if taught as an activity.

Moreso, as a way of improving learning situation, the teacher must motivate the learners to have greater participation in the presentation of the lesson (Agboola, 2016). This statement is supportive of the fact that learners who are taught this way develop personal skills necessary for academic activities and wholesome livelihood for society living.

Abedalbasit (2013) points out that the process of revealing the importance of Physical and Health Education is the school’s responsibility. This can be achieved by providing sufficient opportunities for sports practicing for the development of physical fitness, healthy habits and safe attitudes in order to help stabilize their emotions. Hence, schools have been identified as having a key role to play, but it is apparent that Physical and Health Education teachers are becoming more accountable than ever before, as their roles continue to evolve into pursuing opportunities to facilitate activities that engage learners through appropriate use of sports equipment, thereby, adding value to the study of Physical and Health Education.

In line with these ideas, the researcher develops interest in studying the Use of Sports Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area.

 

1.2  Statement of the Problem

The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitudes from the teacher to the learners. Apparently, the level of effectiveness of any teaching context is more or less reflected in the academic performance of the learners. The poor level of academic performance of Physical and Health Education students in Nigeria has reached an alarming rate. This draws the attention of well-meaning Nigerians to investigate what could be done to enhance the effectiveness of the discipline.

The researcher personally observed that in most secondary schools, the teaching of Physical and Health Education has not really been effective over time due to inappropriate use of sports equipment for instruction. Teachers have failed to consider the Physical and Health Education curriculum as activity-based; as such, they tend to neglect partially or completely the practical aspect of the subject.

As pointed out  by Morgan and Hansen (2018), the barriers that restrict teachers from providing effective Physical and Health Education programs are classified as either “institutional” (outside the teacher’s control); or “teacher-related” (arising from the teacher). The institutional barrier lies on the unavailability of sports equipment and facilities which would have been used for effective teaching of the subject. Some schools that may boast of a few of these equipment cannot even ascertain their level of functionality.

On the part of the teachers, some of them do not have the technical know-how on the appropriate use of these sports equipment should they be provided. Some teachers are just being lazy about using these equipment while teaching; thereby defeating the purpose of studying Physical and Health Education as a subject.

Use of Sport Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools

1.3  Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of sport equipment on effective teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area. 

        Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Examine the influence of sports equipment utilization on effective teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
  2. Investigate the influence of school location on effective teaching of Physical and Health Education when sports equipment are used in Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area.

1.4  Significance of the Study

It is pertinent to note that education is a vital organ for personal and societal development. Hence, the achievement of this study will be significant in the following areas: 

  1. Teachers will be exposed to the knowledge that students at secondary school level learn Physical and Health Education easily with the use of sports equipment. As such, they will develop innovative thinking, creativity and resourcefulness as they will have to think of and select relevant materials for utilization during the teaching-learning process.
  2. Students in secondary schools will be able to acquire greater level of knowledge, skills, and attitudes in Physical and Health Education.
  3. Government, educational stakeholders, and philanthropic organizations will see the need for the provision of sufficient and quality facilities/equipment necessary for Physical and Health Education lessons to Secondary Schools in the state.

1.5  Research Questions

The study sought to answer the following questions:

  1. Could the use of sports equipment influence the effective teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area?
  2. Could school location influence the effective teaching of Physical and Health Education when sports equipment are used in Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area?

1.6  Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered series of constraints in the course of the study. Some of the constraints included:

  1. Lack of financial resources
  2. Time wastage
  3. Stress
  4. Careless attitude of respondents

1.7  Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to sports equipment (soccer and javelin), and their influence on the effective teaching of Physical and Health Education. Also, the study focused on the location of schools as it could influence the effective teaching of Physical and Health Education when sports equipment are used in Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.8  Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally defined as were used in the study:

  • Sports Equipment: This refers to a set of tools, machines, or outfits used in the execution of physical activities which are governed by a set of rules.
  • Effective Teaching: This is a successful transference of knowledge and skills from a teacher to a learner in a deeper, student-driven approach that analyses, develops, creates and demonstrates understanding.
  • Physical and Health Education: This is defined as the study, practice and appreciation of the art and science of human movement, as well as the sum total of all the experiences which contributes to the development of desirable attitudes, habits and knowledge related to individual, family and societal health.
  • School Location: This refers to the area where a school is situated, whether urban, rural or sub-urban.
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